There were thirty thousand national prisons in the Gulag Archipeligo. 223 are shown on maps in Solzhenitsyn book Gulag Archipeligo.
The notorious prisons, which incarcerated about 29 million people throughout their history, operated for 43 years from the 1920s until shortly after Stalin’s death in 1953. Political prisoners continued to be kept in one of the most famous camps Perm-36 until 1987 when it was closed. The last forced labor camp was closed in 1991 when the Soviet Union Dissapeared. At its height, the Gulag network included thousands of labor camps that held anywhere from 2,000 to 10,000 people each.
The UPV camp system, separate from the Gulag, was established in 1939 to utilize POWs and foreign civilians for labor. It eventually included several hundred camps and thousands of auxiliary camps which held millions of foreign prisoners during their years of operation.
In one of the greatest acts of genocide in human history, at least 6 million kulaks were starved to death by the deliberate policy of the Soviet Union communist state.