Here’s a list, not a complete list, of about 1.200 words that are banned from textbooks, newspapers and the movies. This is from Daine Racitch’s book: “The Language Police”

Able-bodied: banned as offensive, replace with person who is non-disabled (SF-AW)

Able-bodied seaman, able seaman: banned as sexist, replace with crewmember (HRW1, NES) Abnormal: banned as demeaning to people with disabilities (SF-AW, ETS2)

Actress: banned as sexist, replace with actor (MMH, HM1, HAR2, NES)

Adam and Eve: replace with Eve and Adam to demonstrate that males do not take priority over females (APhilA) Addict: banned, replace with individual with a drug addiction (NYS2) Afflicted/afflicted with/afflicted by/affliction: banned as a reference to persons with disabilities, replace with a person who has… (SF-AW, HAR2, ETS2, NYS2) Afro American: banned, replace with African American (NYS2) Aged, the: banned as demeaning to older persons (HM1, NYS2) Airman: banned as sexist, replace with aviator (HRW) Alcoholic: banned, replace with individual with alcoholism (NYS2) Alumna, alumnae, alumnus: banned as sexist, replace with graduate, graduates (NYS2) America, American: banned because it suggests geographical chauvinism unless it refers to all people in North America, South America, and Central America; refer instead to people of the United States (SF-AW, HM1, HAR2, NES, NYS2) American policy, American economy: replace with U.S. policy, U.S. economy (NES) Anchorman: banned as sexist, replace with anchor person, newscaster (HM1, NES, NYS2) Anglo American: banned, replace with Western European or White as preferred generic terms for the groups of light-skinned people in the United States who are of European ancestry, if reference to an individual’s race, ethnicity, or ancestry must be made (NYS2) Arthritic patient: banned as offensive, replace with person who has arthritis (SF-AW) Assemblyman, assemblywoman: banned as sexist, replace with member of the assembly (NYS2) Authoress: banned as sexist, replace with author (HM1, HRW3, NES, ETS2, NCTE, NYS2) Autistic: banned, replace with individual with autism (NYS2) Average man: banned as sexist, replace with average person (MMH, HM1, NES) Average working man: banned as sexist, replace with the average worker (SF-AW) Aviatrix: banned as sexist, replace with aviator (HM1, HAR1, HRW3, NES, ETS2) Babe: banned as sexist (HM1) Backward: banned as ethnocentric when it refers to a cultural or ethnic group (HM1, SF-AW, AIR) Backward country: banned as ethnocentric when referring to cultural differences (SF-AW, ACT) Backwoodsman: banned as sexist, replace with pioneer (HRW1) Ball and chain: banned as sexist, replace with spouse, wife, partner, mate (MMH, ETS2) Barbarian: banned as ethnocentric when it refers to a cultural or ethnic group (HM1) Baseman: banned as sexist, replace with infielder (HRW1) Batsman: banned as sexist, replace with batter (HRW1) Beast: banned as offensive when it refers to a person (HM1) Bellman: banned as sexist, replace with bellhop (HRW1) Best man for the job, the: banned as sexist, replace with best candidate (ETS2) Better half, the: banned as sexist, replace with spouse, wife, partner, mate (ETS2) Biddy: banned as ageist, demeaning to older women (SF-AW) Birdman: banned as sexist, replace with ornithologist (HRW1) Birth defect: banned as offensive, replace with people with congenital disabilities (SF-AW) Bitch: banned as reference to female dog (MMH) Black/blacks: banned as a noun (HAR2, SF-AW, HRW4) Black/blacks: banned as a predicate adjective (HRW4) Black: banned as adjective meaning evil (CT) Black and white, black or white: banned, replace with either-or, all good or all bad, day and night (NYS2) Blind, the: banned as offensive, replace with people who are blind (SF-AW, HM1, HAR1, NES, ETS1, ETS2, RIV, NYS2) Blind as a bat: banned as handicapism (NYC) Blind leading the blind: banned as handicapism (NYC) Blue collar: banned, replace with specific occupation or job (NYS2) Boatman: banned as sexist, replace with boat operator (NES) Bookworm: banned as offensive, replace with intellectual (HM1) Border patrolman: banned as sexist, replace with border guard (NES) Boyish figure: banned as sexist, replace with youthful figure (HM1) Boys: use only to refer to males up to thirteen (NYS2) Boys’ night out: banned as sexist (NES) Brave: banned as offensive when it refers to a Native American person (HRW1, HM1, HRW4) Brotherhood: banned as sexist, replace with amity, unity, community (MMH, SF-AW, HRW3, CT, APhilA) Brotherhood of man, the: banned as sexist, replace with the human family, solidarity, affection, collegiality, unity, congeniality (APhilA, NYS2) Bubbler: banned as regional bias, replace with water fountain Buck: banned as objectionable when referring to Native American male (SF-AW) Busboy: banned as sexist, replace with dining room attendant (NES) Busybody: banned as sexist, demeaning to older women (SF-AW) Cabin boy: banned as sexist, replace with ship’s steward (HRW1) Cameraman: banned as sexist, replace with camera operator, camera technician (HAR1, NES, NYS2) Cancer patient: banned, replace with patient with cancer (NYS2) Career girl: banned as sexist, replace with specific occupation (NES, ETS2) Career woman: banned as sexist, replace with specific occupation (NES, ETS2) Cassandra: banned as sexist, replace with pessimist (AIR) Cattleman: banned as sexist, replace with cattle rancher (HRW1) Caucasian: banned, replace with White or European American if reference to an individual’s race, ethnicity, or ancestry must be made (NYS2) Caveman: banned as sexist, replace with cave dweller (HM1, HRW3) Chairman, chairwoman: banned as sexist, replace with chair or chairperson or moderator or presiding officer (MMH, SF-AW, HM1, HAR1, HRW3, NES, ETS2, APA, NYS2) Chicana, Chicano: use only if an individual request to be identified by this term (NYS2) Chicano: avoid unless referring specifically to the Chicano movement of the 1960s and 1970s (HRW4) Chick: banned as sexist (HM1) Chief: banned as a noun referring to a Native American leader (HRW1) Chief: banned, replace with principal, primary (NYS2) Chief Sitting Bull: banned as relic of colonialism, replace with Totanka Iotanka (NYC) Chippewa: banned as inauthentic, replace with Ojibwa or Anishinabe (SF-AW) City fathers: banned, replace with city leaders (NYS2) Cleaning woman, cleaning lady: banned as sexist, replace with housekeeper, custodian, janitor (HM1, HAR1, NES, ETS2) Clergyman, clergywoman: banned as sexist, replace with member of the clergy (HM1, HAR, NES, NYS2) Codger, old codger: banned as demeaning to older men (SF-AW, HM1) Coed: banned as sexist, replace with student (MMH, NES, ETS1, ETS2, NCTE, NYS2) Colored: banned as offensive, refer to specific group (HM1) Confined to a wheelchair: banned as offensive, replace with person who is mobility impaired (HAR1, ETS2, HRW4) Congenital disability: banned, replace with a disability that has existed in an individual since birth (NYS2) Congressman: banned as sexist, replace with member of congress, representative (SF-AW, HM1, HAR1, HAR2, HRW3, ETS2, NYS2) Costume: banned as offensive when referring to the clothing of a specific group, replace with clothing (SF-AW) Councilman: banned as sexist, replace with council member (NES, NYS2) Countryman, countrywoman: banned, replace with citizen (NYS2) Courageous: banned as patronizing when referring to a person with disabilities (ETS2) Cover girl: banned as sexist, replace with model (HRW1) Cowboy, cowgirl: banned as sexist, replace with cowhand (HRW1) Craftsman: banned as sexist, replace with craft worker, craftperson, artist (MMH, NES, NYS2) Crazy, crazy person: banned as offensive, replace with person with an emotional disability or a mental impairment (SF-AW, HM1, HAR1, NES) Creature: banned when regerring to people with disabilities (SF-AW) Credit to his/her race: banned as racist, replace with a great American or a great pesron (SF-AW) Cripple, crippled: banned as offensive, replace with orthopedic disability, person with a mobility impairment (SF-AW, HM1, HAR2, NES, NYC, ETS2, NYS2) Crippled children: banned as offensive, replace with children who are disabled (HAR1) Cro-Magnon man: banned as sexist, replace with Cro-Magnon people (MMH) Crone: banned as demeaning to older women (SF-AW) Crotchety: banned as reference to older persons (HM1) Cult: banned as ethnocentric when referring to a religious group (SF-AW, ETS2) Culturally deprived: banned as ethnocentric when referring to a racial, ethnic, or cultural group (HM1, ACT) Culturally disadvantaged: banned as ethnocentric reference to cultural differences (ACT) Dame: banned as sexist, replace with woman (HM1) Dark Continent: banned as racist, replace with Africa (SF-AW, AIR, RIV) Deaf, the: banned as offensive, replace with people who are deaf or a person with loss of hearing (SF-AW, HM1, NES, ETS2, NYS2) Deaf and dumb: banned as offensive (SF-AW, HM1, NES, NYC, HRW4) Deaf-mute: banned as offensive, replace with person who can’t hear or speak (SF-AW, HM1, HAR1, NES) Defective: banned when referring to people with disabilities (SF-AW) Deformed: banned as offensive, replace with person with physical disability (SF-AW) Delivery boy, deliveryman: banned as sexist, replace with deliverer, messenger (HAR, NES, NYS2) Deprived: banned, replace with reference to what an individual has been deprived of (NYS2) Devil: banned (AEP) Diabetic: banned, replace with individual with diabetes (NYS2) Dialect: banned as ethnocentric, use sparingly, replace with language (SF-AW) Differently abled: banned as offensive, replace with person who has a disability (SF-AW) Dirty old man: banned as sexist and ageist (NYC) Disabled, the: banned as offensive, replace with people with a disability (SF-AW, HAR1, NYS2) Disadvantaged: banned, replace with reference to the resources or rights that are absent in an individual’s or group’s life circumstances (NYS2) Dissenter: ethnocentric, use with caution (ETS2) Distaff side, the: banned as sexist (ETS2) Divorcé, divorceé: banned, replace with divorced person or person who is divorced if reference to an individual’s marital status is necessary at all (NYS2) Dogma: banned as ethnocentric, replace with doctrine, belief (SF-AW) Doorman: banned as sexist, replace with door attendant (HRW1) Down’s syndrome: banned as offensive, replace with Down syndrome (ETS2) Draftsman: banned as offensive, replace with drafter (NES, NYS2) Drunk, drunken, drunkenness: banned as offensive when referring to Native Americans (SF-AW, HM2) Duffer: banned as demeaning to older men (SF-AW) Dummy: banned as offensive, replace with people who are speech impaired (SF-AW) Dwarf: banned as offensive, replace with person of short stature (SF-AW, HAR1) Early man: banned as sexist, replace with early human (HAR1, NES) East, Eastern: banned as Eurocentric when used to discuss world geography; refer to specific continent or region instead (HAR2) Economically disadvantaged: banned as ethnocentric reference to racial, ethnic, or cultural group (HM1) Egghead: banned as offensive, replace with intellectual (HM1) Elderly, the: banned as ageist, replace with older persons (SF-AW, APA) Eskimo: banned as inauthentic, replace with Inupiat and Yupik or Native Arctic peoples (SF-AW, ETS1) or replace with Inuit, Inupiak, Yupik, Yuit or Native Arctic peoples (note Yupik and Yuit are not interchangeable) (HAR2) Ethnic: avoid the use of this word as a noun (NYS2) Exceptionalities: banned as patronizing to people with disabilities (ETS2) Executrix: banned, replace with executor (NYS2) Exotic: banned when referring to Asian Americans (SF-AW) Extremist: banned as ethnocentric, replace with believer, follower, adherent (SF-AW) Factory foreman: banned as sexist, replace with supervisor (ETS2) Fair sex: banned as sexist, replace with woman or female (HM1, NES, AIR, ETS2) Fairy: banned because it suggests homosexuality, replace with elf (AEP) Family of man: banned, replace with human race, civilization (NYS2) Fanatic: banned as ethnocentric, replace with believer, follower, adherent (SF-AW) Fat: banned, replace with heavy, obese (AEP) Feebleminded: banned as offensive, replace with person with mental disability (HM1, NES) Fellow: banned, replace with scholar, award recipient, postgraduate unless referring to a specific academic award (NYS2) Fellowship: banned as sexist, replace with friendship (HRW3) Fellow worker: banned as sexist, replace with coworker (NES) Feminine wiles: banned as sexist, replace with wiles (HM1) Filly: banned as sexist, unless one means a female horse (MMH) Fireman: banned as sexist, replace with firefighter (MMH, HM1, HAR1, HRW3, NES, AIR, ETS2, NYS2) Fisherman: banned as sexist, replace with fisher, angler (MMH, HAR1, NES, NYS2) Forefathers: banned as sexist, replace with ancestors, precursors (MMH, SF-AW, NES, CT, NYS2) Foreman: banned as sexist, replace with supervisor, manager (MMH, HAR1, NES, NYS2) Founding Fathers: banned as sexist, replace with the founders, the framers (HM1, HAR1, HRW3, APhilA, NYS2) Four eyes: banned as offensive to the visually impaired (HM1) Fraternity: banned as sexist, replace with community, kinship, solidarity, collegiality (APhilA) Fraternize: banned as sexist (HRW3) Freak: banned as demeaning to person with disability (SF-AW) Freshman: banned as sexist, replace with first-year student (SF-AW, NES, NYS2) Frontiersmen: banned as sexist, replace with pioneers, forebears, settlers (HAR1) Gal: banned as sexist (SF-AW, HM1) Gal Friday, Girl Friday: banned as sexist (HRW3, HM1, AIR) Garbageman: banned as sexist, replace with garbage collector, trash collector (HAR1) Gay: banned, as it suggests homosexual, replace with happy, lighthearted (AEP) Geezer: banned as demeaning to older men (SF-AW) Gentleman’s agreement: banned, replace with informal agreement Geriatric patient: banned as demeaning to older persons (SF-AW) Ghetto: banned, replace with reference to socioeconomic characteristics of a particular neighborhood if necessary (NYS2) Gimp: banned as offensive to person with mental or physical disability (SF-AW, HM1) Girl: banned except for reference to females under sixteen (MMH, SF-AW, HM1, HRW3, NES, ETS2) Girlish laughter: banned as sexist, replace with laughter (HM1) Girls: use only to refer to females up to thirteen (NYS2) Girls, the: banned as sexist (NES) God: banned (AEP) Golden Agers: banned as ageist, replace with older persons or persons who are older (HM1, SF-AW) Grandfather clause: banned, replace with retroactive coverage, retroactive exemption (NYS2) Grass: avoid as it may have a negative or dirty connotation (MI) Gringo: banned as offensive (NES) Groundsman: banned as sexist, replace with grounds worker (NES) Grow to manhood: banned as sexist, replace with grow to adulthood (ETS2) Guys: banned as sexist, replace with students, class, folks, all of you, third graders (NCTE) Gypsy, gypsies: banned, replace with Rom or Romani or Roma or Romanies (NYS2) Handicap, the handicapped, handicapped person: banned as offensive, replace with disability, person with a disability (HAR1, NES, ETS1, ETS2, NYS2) Handyman: banned as sexist, replace with maintenance worker (NES) He: banned as sexist, replace with he or she or they (AIR) Headman: banned as sexist, replace with leader (HRW1) Hearing-impaired: banned as offensive, replace with deaf or hard-of-hearing (ETS2, HRW4) Heathen: banned as ethnocentric when referring to religion, replace with nonbeliever (SF-AW, NYC, ETS2) Heathen: banned when referring to American Indians (SF-AW, HM1, HM2, NYC) Heiress: banned as sexist, replace with heir (HM1) Hell: banned, replace with heck, darn (AEP) He-man: banned as sexist (CT) Henpecked husband: banned as sexist (MMH, NES) Heretic: use with caution when comparing religions (ETS2) Heroine: banned as sexist, replace with hero (SF-AW, HAR2, NES, NYS2) Hispanic American: use with caution as some groups object to the term’s suggestion of a shared European cultural heritage, replace with specific nationality (NES) Homeless: banned, replace with individuals who are homeless, persons without homes (NYS2) Homosexual: banned, replace with person, child Hordes: banned as reference to immigrant groups (CT) Horseman, horsewoman: banned as sexist, replace with equestrian (HRW1) Horsemanship: banned as sexist, replace with riding skill (NES) Hostess: banned, replace with host (NYS2) Hottentot: banned as a relic of colonialism, replace with Khoi-khoi Househusband: banned, replace with homemaker, one who works at home (NYS2) Houseman, housemaid: banned as sexist, replace with servant, housekeeper (HRW1) Housewife: banned as sexist, replace with homemaker, head of the household (SF-AW, HAR1, HAR2, NES, ETS2, NYS2) Hussy: banned as sexist (SF-AW) Huts: banned as ethnocentric, replace with small houses (SF-AW) Hypochondriac: banned, replace with individual with hypochondriasis (NYS2) Idiot: banned as offensive to person with mental disability (SF-AW, HM1, NES) Illegal alien: banned, replace with undocumented worker, undocumented resident (NYS2) Illegitimate: banned, it is usually not necessary to mention the circumstances of a person’s birth (NYS2) Illiterate: banned, specify if an individual is unable to read or write, or both (NYS2) Imbecile: banned as offensive to person with mental disability (HM1, NES) Inconvenienced: banned as patronizing to people with disabilities (ETS2) Indian: avoid unless referring to someone who is from India (HRW-4) Indian giver: banned as offensive (NYC) Insane: banned as offensive, replace with person who has an emotional disorder or psychiatric illness (SF-AW, HM1, NES) Inscrutable: banned when referring to Asian Americans (SF-AW, MMH) Inspirational: banned as patronizing when referring to a person with disabilities (ETS2) Insurance man: banned as sexist, replace with insurance agent (MMH, HAR1, HRW3, NES, ETS2) Invalid: banned when referring to a person with disabilities (ETS2) Jewess: banned as sexist, replace with Jew (NES) Journeyman: banned as sexist, replace with certified artisan or specify the occupation (NYS2, NES) Jungle: banned, replace with rain forest, savannah (AEP) Junior executive: banned, replace with executive trainee (NYS2) Junk bonds: banned as elitist (ETS1, ETS2) Junkman: banned as sexist, replace with junk dealer (HRW1) Juvenile delinquent: banned, replace with juvenile offender, youthful offender (NYS2) Kaffir: banned as a relic of colonialism, replace with African (NYC) King Philip: banned as reference to a Native American leader, replace with Metacome (NYC) Kinsman: banned as sexist, replace with relative (HRW1, NYS2) Ladies, the: banned as sexist (NES) Lady: banned as sexist (MMH, SF-AW, HM1, NYS2) Lady doctor: banned as sexist (MMH) Lady lawyer: banned as sexist (HRW3, NES, ETS1, ETS2, NCTE) Ladylike: banned as sexist, replace with feminine (HRW3) Lame: banned as offensive, replace with walks with a cane (SF-AW) Landlord, landlady: banned as sexist, replace with owner (NES, NYS2) Latin American: use with caution, as some groups resent the term’s insensitivity to national differences, and some find it inaccurate, since not all such people speak a Latin-based language. Replace with specific nationality. (NES) Laundress, laundryman: banned as sexist, replace with laundry worker (HRW1) Layman: banned as sexist, replace with layperson, nonexpert, nonspecialist (NES, NYS2) Lazy: banned as adjective when referring to American Indians (SF-AW) Letterman: banned as sexist, replace with student who has won a letter (HRW1) Limping along: banned as handicapism (NYC) Lineman: banned as sexist, replace with line installer (MMH, NES) Linesman: banned as sexist, replace with sports official (HRW) Little person: banned as offensive, replace with person of small stature (SF-AW, HAR1) Little woman, the: banned as sexist, replace with wife, spouse, partner, mate (HM1, HRW3, ETS1, ETS2) Longshoreman: banned as sexist, replace with dock worker (NES) Lumberman, lumberjack: banned as sexist, replace with woodcutter (NES) Lunatic: banned as offensive, replace with person with a psychiatric illness (SF-AW) Maid: banned as sexist, replace with house cleaner (ETS2) Maiden name: banned, replace with birth name (NYS2) Mailman: banned as sexist, replace with mail carrier (MMH, HRW1, HM1, HAR1, HRW3, NES, ETS2, NYS2) Maintenance man: banned, replace with maintenance worker, maintenance engineer (NYS2) Majorette: banned, replace with major Majority group: banned as offensive reference to cultural differences (ACT) Male nurse: banned as sexist, replace with nurse (MMH, SF-AW, HM1, NES, ETS, NCTE) Male secretary: banned as sexist, replace with secretary (HM1) Man: banned as a sexist verb, as in man the sailboats or man the trucks (MMH, NES, NYS2) Man, mankind, men: banned as sexist, replace with humankind, the human race, humanity, persons, people, figures, personalities, women and men, men and women (MMH, HM1, HAR1, HAR2, NES, AIR, MA, NYC, ETS2) Man’s achievement: refer instead to human achievement (MMH, NES, ETS2) Man and wife: banned as sexist, replace with husband and wife (MMH, SF-AW, HAR1, ETS2) Manhood: banned as sexist, replace with adulthood, maturity (HM1, NES) Man-hour: banned as sexist, replace with work hour, total hours (HAR1, NES, NYS2) Manhunt: banned as sexist, replace with hunt for a person (HRW1) Maniac: banned as offensive to persons with a psychiatric disability (HM1, NES) Mankind: banned as sexist, replace with humankind, humanity, human beings, people (NES, NYC, ETS2, RIV, NYS2) Manly: banned as sexist (MMH) Man-made: banned as sexist, replace with artificial, synthetic, manufactured (MMH, HM1, HAR1, HRW3, NES, AIR, NYC, ETS2, CT, NYS2) Manned space flight: banned, replace with piloted, with crew, with staff (NYS2) Mannish: banned as sexist (HRW3) Man-of-war: banned as sexist, replace with warship (HRW1) Man on the street: banned as sexist, replace with the average person (MMH, HM1, RIV, NES) Manpower: banned as sexist, replace with human power, workers, personal strength, workforce, human energy (MMH, SF-AW, HM1, HAR1, NES, AIR, NYC, ETS2, NYS2) Man-size job: banned as sexist, replace with big, enormous (HRW3, ACT, ETS2, NCTE, NYS2) Masculine drive: banned as sexist (HM1) Massacre: banned as offensive when referring to Native Americans (HM2) Master, owner: banned when referring to slavery, replace with holder or slave-holder (HRW4) Master copy: banned, replace with primary copy (NYS2) Master plan: banned, replace with comprehensive plan, overall plan (NYS2) Masterpiece: banned, replace with work of art, work of genius, greatest work NYS2) Mastery: banned, replace with proficiency, skill, expertise (NYS2) Maven: banned as regional or ethnic bias (ETS1) Mental deficiency: banned as insensitive (ETS2) Mentally ill, the: banned as offensive, replace with person with a mental or emotional disability (HM1, HAR1, NES, ETS2, APA) Mentally retarded: banned as offensive, replace with person with mental retardation (SF-AW) Middle East: banned as reflecting a Eurocentric worldview, replace with Southwest Asia; may be acceptable, however, as a historical reference (HAR2) Midget: banned as offensive, replace with person of short stature (SF-AW, HAR1) Milkman: banned as sexist, replace with delivery person (HRW1) Minority: banned, replace with historically underrepresented group or member of such group (NYS2) Minority group: banned as offensive reference to cultural differences (ACT) Mister, the: banned as synonym for husband (HM1) Mongoloid: banned as offensive, replace with person with Down syndrome (SF-AW, HM1, NES, NYC) Mother Russia: banned as sexist, replace with Russia, vast land of rich harvests (HM1) Mothering banned as sexist, replace with nurturing, parenting (APA) Motherland, fatherland: banned as sexist, replace with native land (HRW1) Mrs., the: banned as synonym for wife (HM1) Mulatto: banned as racist (NES) Mute: banned as handicapism when used as a noun (NYC) Mysterious: banned when referring to Asian Americans (SF-AW) Myth: banned when referring to traditional beliefs of American Indians, replace with story or narrative (SF-AW) Native: banned when referring to a Native American person, banned also when used as a noun (HM1, NYC) Navajo: banned as inauthentic, replace with Diné (SF-AW) Needy: banned, replace with individual in need (NYS2) New World: banned in nonfiction (HSV) Newsboy: banned as sexist, replace with newspaper carrier (NES, NYS2) Newsman, newswoman: banned as sexist, replace with newsperson, reporter (HRW1, NES, NYS2) Newspaperman: banned as sexist, replace with reporter (HRW1) Niggardly: banned, replace with frugal, cheap (AEP) Night watchman: banned as sexist, replace with night guard Nobleman: banned as sexist, replace with member of the nobility or noble (HRW1) Non-Western: banned, replace with reference to specific nation, region, culture (NYS2) Nonwhite: banned, replace with people of color or specific race (NYS2) Normal: banned as offensive, replace with a person without disabilities (SF-AW, ETS2, NYS2) Office boy: banned as sexist, replace with messenger, office helper (NES) Old: banned as an adjective that implies helplessness, dependency, or other negative conceptions (NYC) Old folks: banned as ageist, replace with persons who are older (HM1) Old hag: banned as offensive (NYC) Old lady: banned as demeaning to older women (SF-AW) Old lady, the: banned as sexist when referring to one’s wife (HRW3) Old maid: banned as both sexist and ageist (SF-AW, HM1, NCTE) Old maidish: banned as sexist (HRW3) Old man: banned as demeaning to older men (SF-AW, HRW3) Old man, the: banned as synonym for husband (HM1, HRW3) Old witch: banned as offensive (NYC) Old wives’ tales: banned as sexist, replace with folk wisdom Ombudsman: banned as sexist, replace with ombuds (NYS2, NES) One-man band: banned as sexist, replace with one-person performance (MMH) One-man show: banned as sexist, replace with solo performance (MMH) Orient, Oriental: banned as offensive, replace with Asian, Japanese, etc. (SF-AW, MMH, HAR2, NES, NYS2) Overcoming a disability: banned as offensive when referring to a person with a disability (ETS2) Pagan: banned as ethnocentric when referring to religion, replace with nonbeliever (SF-AW, HM1, ETS2) Paper boy: banned as sexist, replace with paper deliverer Papoose: banned as demeaning to Native Americans (MMH, SF-AW, HM1, HM2) Paralytic: banned as offensive, replace with person who uses crutches (SF-AW) Paraplegic: banned as offensive, replace with people with paraplegia (SF-AW, NYS2) Past one’s prime: banned as demeaning to older persons (SF-AW) Peculiar: banned when it refers to religious practices or beliefs (SF-AW) Penmanship: banned as sexist, replace with handwriting, script, writing (NYS2) Physically challenged: banned as patronizing to persons who have a physical disability (SF-AW, ETS2) Pink collar: banned, replace with specific occupation or job (NYS2) Plainsman: banned as sexist, replace with plains dweller (HRW1) Poetess: banned as sexist, replace with poet (SF-AW, HM1, HAR1, HRW3, NES, ETS2, NCTE, NYS2) Policeman, policewoman: banned as sexist, replace with police officer (MMH, HM1, HAR1, HRW3, NES, AIR, NYS2) Politically correct: use with caution, generally used to dismiss or discount an issue involving fairness or equity (NYS2) Pollyanna: banned as sexist, replace with optimist Polo: banned as elitist (ETS1, ETS2) Poor: banned, replace with living in poverty, living below the poverty line or cite the individual’s specific income (NYS2) Pop: banned as regional bias when referring to soft drink, replace with Coke, Pepsi, however note that brand names by California social content review guidelines (AIR) Postman: banned as sexist, replace with mail carrier (MMH, HRW1) Postmaster, postmistress: banned as sexist, replace with post office director (HRW1) Pressman: banned as sexist, replace with press operator (NES) Primitive: banned as ethnocentric when referring to racial, ethnic, religious, or cultural groups (SF-AW, HM1, NES, NYC, AIR, ACT, ETS2, NYS2) Primitive man: banned as sexist, replace with primitive peoples (HAR1, HAR2, NES) Profoundly deaf: banned as offensive, replace with person with loss of hearing (HAR1) Provider, the: banned as synonym for husband (HM1) Public-relations man: banned as sexist, replace with public-relations specialist (NES) Quota: use with caution, as it is often used to dismiss or discount individuals, issues, or programs concerned with inclusion, fairness, and equity (NYS2) Quadriplegic: banned, replace with individual with quadriplegia (NYS2) Red man: banned when referring to a Native American man (HM1, AIR, RIV) Redskin: banned when referring to American Indian (SF-AW, HM1) Regatta: banned as elitist (ETS1) Repairman: banned as sexist, replace with repair person, maintenance person, plumber, carpenter, etc. (HRW1, HAR1, HAR2, NES, NYS2) Retard: banned as objectionable to people with disabilities (SF-AW, HM1, NES) Retardate: banned as offensive (NES) Retarded, the: banned as offensive, replace with peson who is developmentally disabled (HM1, HAR1, ETS2) Right-hand man: banned as sexist, replace with closest associate or assistant (HM1, HRW3, NES) Roaming the land: banned as reference to Native Americans (CT) Rocking-chair brigade: banned as ageist (HM1) Roving the land: banned as reference to Native Americans (CT) Salesman, saleswoman: banned as sexist, replace with sales representative (MMH, SF-AW, HRW1, HM1, HAR1, HRW3, NES, ETS2, NYS2) Satan: banned (AEP) Savages: banned when referring to Native Americans (CT) Schoolgirl, schoolboy: banned as sexist, replace with schoolchild (HRW1) Sculptress: banned as sexist, replace with sculptor (MMH, HM1) Seaman: banned as sexist, replace with sailor (HRW1) Seamstress: banned as sexist, replace with sewing machine operator, sewer, garment attendant (NES, NYS2) Sect: banned as ethnocentric when referring to a religious group, unless it separated from an established religion (SF-AW, ETS2) Senile: banned as demeaning to older persons (SF-AW, HM1, NYS2) Senility: banned as demeaning, replace with dementia (APA) Senior citizen: banned as demeaning to older persons (SF-AW) Serviceman: banned as sexist, replace with member of the armed services, gas station attendant (HRW1) Showman: banned as sexist, replace with showperson, entertainer, producer (MMH, HRW1) Sickly: banned as demeaning reference to person with disabilities (ETS2) Sightless: banned as offensive, replace with people who are blind (SF-AW) Sioux: banned as inauthentic, replace with Lakota, Dakota, or Nakota (SF-AW) Sissy: banned as demeaning (MMH, SF-AW, NES, CT) Sissified: banned as demeaning (HRW3) Slave: replace whenever possible with enslaved person, enslaved African, worker, or laborer (AEP, HRW4) Sneaky: banned when referring to Asian Americans (SF-AW) Snow ball: banned for regional bias, replace with flavored ice (AIR) Snow cone: banned for regional bias, replace with flavored ice (AIR) Snowman: banned, replace with snowperson (AEP) Sob sister: banned as sexist, replace with exploitative journalist (NES, AIR) Soda: banned for regional bias, replace with Coke, Pepsi, however note that brand names are banned by California social content review guidelines (AIR) Songstress: banned as sexist, replace with singer Sophisticated: banned when it refers to religious practices or beliefs (SF-AW) Soul food: banned as regional or ethnic bias (ETS1) Spastic: banned as offensive description; muscles are spastic, not people (ETS2) Special: banned as patronizing when referring to a person with a disability (SF-AW, AIR, ETS2) Spinster: banned as demeaning to older single women (SF-AW, NCTE) Spinsterish: banned as sexist (HRW3) Spokesman, spokeswoman: banned as sexist, replace with spokesperson (MMH, HAR1, NYS2) Sportsman, sportswoman: banned as sexist, replace with athlete, outdoor enthusiast (HRW, HYS2) Sportsmanship: banned as sexist, replace with sporting conduct (NES) Squaw: banned as disparaging to Native American women (MMH, SF-AW, HM1, HM2, HRW4) Statesman, stateswoman: banned as sexist, replace with diplomat, legislator, leader, public servant (HRW1, HAR1, HAR2, NES, NYS2) Stewardess, steward: banned as sexist, replace with flight attendant (HM1, HAR1, NES, NCTE, NYS2) Stickball: banned as regional or ethnic bias (ETS1) Stone deaf: banned as handicapism (NYC) Strange: banned when it refers to religious practices or beliefs (SF-AW) Straw man: banned as sexist, replace with unreal issue, misrepresentation (NES) Subgroup: banned as offensive reference to cultural differences (ACT) Substandard English: banned as ethnocentric, replace with slang or home language (SF-AW) Sufferer of cerebral palsy: banned as offensive, replace with person who has lost muscle control (HAR1) Suffragette: banned as sexist, replace with suffragist (MMH, SF-AW, HAR1, HAR2, NES, ETS2, NYS2) Swarms: banned as reference to immigrant groups (CT) Swarthy: banned as racist, replace with dark, black, brown (SF-AW) Sweet young thing: banned as sexist, replace with young woman (ETS2) Teenager: banned, replace with adolescent Third World: banned as ethnocentric (NES, NYS2) Token: use with caution, as it is often used to dismiss or discount individuals or issues of fairness and equity (NYS2) Tomboy: banned as sexist (SF-AW, NES, AIR) Tote: banned as regional bias, replace with brown paper bag (RIV) Townsman, townswoman: banned, replace with citizen, townspeople (NYS2) Tribal warfare: banned as ethnocentric, replace with conflict among diverse peoples (HRW4) Tribe: banned as ethnocentric, replace with ethnic group or nation or people (SF-AW, NYC, HRW4); however, HAR2 says that tribe is acceptable Tribesman: banned as ethnocentric and sexist (HM1, HRW4) Turning a deaf ear: banned as handicapism (NYC) Typical: use with caution, its appearance is generally a warning that labeling and stereotyping will follow (NYS2) Un-American: banned, no replacement (NYS2) Uncivilized: banned, no replacement (NYS2) Underclassman: banned, replace with undergraduate (NYS2) Underdeveloped: banned as ethnocentric when referring to another country (HM1, SF-AW) Underprivileged: banned, no replacement (NYS2) Unfortunate: banned as negative judgment on person with disability (ETS2) Unmanned: banned, replace with unstaffed, without workers (NYS2) Unmarried: banned, replace with single if reference to marital status must be made (NYS2) Usherette: banned as sexist, replace with usher (HM1, HRW3, ETS2) Victim: banned as demeaning reference to person with a disability (ETS2, RIV) Victim of blindness: banned as offensive, replace with persons who have lost their sight (HAR1) Waitress: banned as sexist, replace with server, waitron (MMH, HAR1, NES) Wandering the land: banned as reference to Native Americans (CT) Warlike: banned when referring to American Indians (SF-AW) Warrior: banned as offensive when referring to a Native American person (HRW1) Weak sister: banned as sexist (HRW3) Weaker sex: banned, replace with women, females (HM1, NES, ETS2) Weatherman, weathergirl: banned as sexist, replace with weather reporter, meteorologist (NES, NYS2) West, Western: banned as Eurocentric when discussing world geography, replace with reference to specific continent or region (HAR2) Wheelchair bound: banned as offensive, replace with a person who is mobility impaired or wheelchair user (SF-AW, HAR1, ETS2, RIV, HRW4) Wheelchair user: banned, replace with an individual who uses a wheelchair (NYS2) White/whites: banned as a noun (HAR2, SF-AW) White: banned as an adjective meaning pure (CT) Whole: banned as offensive when referring to a person’s capability, replace with person without disabilities or person who is nondisabled (SF-AW) Widow, widower: banned, replace with widowed if reference to an individual’s marital status must be made (NYS2) Wife, the: banned as synonym for wife (HM1, HRW3) Wild: banned when referring to American Indians (SF-AW) Woman doctor: banned as sexist, replace with doctor (SF-AW, HM1, ETS2) Woman driver: banned as sexist (HRW3) Womanish: banned as sexist (HRW3, ETS2) Woman’s intuition: banned, replace with intuition, hunch (NYS2) Woman’s work: banned as sexist (HRW3) Women’s libber: banned as offensive, replace with feminist or suporter of the women’s movement (HM1) Workingman: banned as sexist, replace with worker (MMH) Workman: banned as sexist, replace with worker, laborer, employee, staff member (HM1, HAR1, HRW3, NES, NYS2) Workmanlike: banned as sexist, replace with competent (HM1, HRW3) Workman’s compensation: banned, replace with workers’ compensation (NYS2) Workmanship: banned as sexist, no replacement (NES, NYS2) Yacht: banned as elitist (ETS2) Yes-man: banned as sexist (AIR, NYS2)

General Usage Rules:

Avoid man, mankind, men. (MMH, SF-AW, HM1, ETS2) Avoid references to the rise of man, refer instead to the rise of civilization or humanity (MMH) Avoid references to great men in history, refer instead to people who made history. (MMH) Avoid book titles like Man and His World, Men of Science, Man and the State, Men and Nations. (HRW3) Do not say you and your wife, refer instead to you and your spouse. (ETS2) Do not say when you shave in the morning, replace with when you brush your teeth in the morning. (ETS2) Replace the masculine pronouns he and his with plural words they and their or by a nongendered word. For example, Each citizen must pay his taxes should be All citizens must pay their taxes. Or, Each citizen should pay the tax. (MMH, NES, ETS2) Do not treat women as baggage, as passive actors who were brought along by their husbands, as in Pioneers moved west, taking along their wives and children. Replace with Pioneer families moved west. Do not use the feminine pronoun to refer to countries and boats; use it instead. Do not say, England ruled the seas; her navy was huge, but its navy was huge. (MMH) Balance names like Mary, John, and Jane with names such as Jose, Lashunda, Che, Ling. (MA) Do not compare humans with animals (especially with reference to Native Americans), e.g. swift as a deer or eyes like a doe. (NYC) Use it to refer to animals, not his or her. Do not say, The cat washed herself, but The cat washed itself. Do not say, The horse shook his mane,, but The horse shook its mane. (MMH, SF-AW, HM1) An exclusive focus on Judeo-Christian contributions to literature or art is ethnocentric. (ETS1, ETS2) Treat all religions with equal respect. (ETS2) Do not imply or claim that the land called the United States was discovered by Europeans or that it was empty land. (SF-AW) Do not refer to a U.S. cavalry victory as a battle and an American Indian victory as a massacre. (SF-AW) Do not cast adverse reflection on any gender, race, ethnicity, religion, or cultural group. (CA) Do not give a demeaning or negative portrayal of any group. (CT) Banned Expressions:

Girls are sugar and spice and everything nice. (MMH) Girls can’t… (MMH) Women can’t… (MMH) Women shouldn’t… (SF-AW, MMH) She acts like a lady. (SF-AW) She (or he) runs like a girl. (SF-AW) She thinks like a man. (SF-AW) He acted like a woman. (MMH) He took it like a man. (MMH, SF-AW) He was as weak as a girl. (MMH) I’ll have my girl check that. (NES, ETS2) She acted like a man. (MMH) That was a manly act of courage. (MMH) Smart as a man. (MMH, SF-AW) Strong as a man. (MMH, SF-AW) Banned Gender Images:

Mothers and other females always wearing aprons (MMH) Mother cooking or sewing while Father reads (MMH) Mother bringing sandwiches to Father as he fixes the roof (MMH) Mother running a vacuum cleaner, cooking, doing laundry, carrying food (MMH) Moher seeing Father off to work (MMH) Women finding achievement solely in marriage or motherhood (ETS1) Women portrayed as teacher, mother, nurse, and/or secretary (CT) Women portrayed as cute, fragile, delicate, helpless, doll-like (HRW3) Women consistently portrayed as wives and mothers (AIR, RIV) Women in jobs with less power than men (AIR) Women dependent on men (AIR, NYC, RIV) Women as catty, competitive with each other for male attention, preferring the company of men (NYC) Women of achievement who are domineering, aggressive, lacking in desirable personal attributes (NYC) Women aging less gracefully than men (AIR) Women having consistently inferior math and science skills than men (AIR) Women in stereotypical female jobs (teacher, nurse, secretary) (AIR) Women as less rational and more intuitive as men (AIR, ETS1, ETS2) Women needing less education than men (AIR) Women as nurses, receptionists (RIV) Women as more nurturing than men (AIR) Women engaging in domestic chores more than men (AIR) Mother shopping (MMH) Mother showing shock, fear, horror (MMH) Mother at vanity table (MMH) Men as sole breadwinners for the family (AIR, RIV) Men earning more money than women (AIR) Men as active problem-solvers (AIR) Men in positions of greater authority than women (AIR) Men as capable leaders (RIV) Men more rational than women (AIR) Men more aggressive than women (AIR) Men playing sports, working with tools (AIR, RIV) Men as lawyers, plumbers (RIV) Men and boys larger and heavier than women and girls (HRW3, NYC) Men in stereotypical jobs like construction, police work, physician (AIR) Men less able to complete domestic chores than women (AIR) Father always driving the family car on outings (MMH) Father taking children on adventurous outings (MMH) Mother comforting children, giving sympathy, hugs, kisses, hot milk at bedtime (MMH) Father expressionless or relaxed in trying circumstances (MMH) Females backing off from center of action (e.g. a girl recoiling from a snake) (MMH) Boys playing ball, while girls watch (MMH) Boys playing sports (AIR) Females wringing or fluttering their hands, covering their faces or mouths, making shrinking-back motions, lowering their heads, casting down their eyes (MMH) Females using coy, flirtatious gestures, tilted heads, little shrugs, playing with hair, fingering dress (MMH) Females usually sitting (MMH) Girls playing in dresses or always wearing them to school (MMH) Girls playing house (HRW3) Girls deferring to boys (HRW3) Girls always looking cute, wearing frills, ribbons, jewelry (MMH) Women, girls who are weepy, fearful and emotional (AIR, MA, NYC, RIV) Women, girls as weak, frail, passive, docile, incompetent (MA, NYC) Females more preoccupied with their appearance than males (MMH, AIR, MA, RIV, ETS1, ETS2) Girls playing dress-up, buying clothes (MMH) Women more concerned about home and family than about career (MA, NYC, ETS2) Women, girls who love to gossip and talk all the time (MA) Women, girls who lack leadership qualities such as self-confidence, ambition, assertiveness (MA) Women shopping and spending money (MA) Women who are not team players (MA) Women, girls who lack mechanical abilities and basic mathematics abilities (SF-AW, MA) Pink for girl babies, blue for boy babies (MMH) Mothers always in dresses (MMH) Girls playing with dolls, baby carriages, kitchen equipment (MMH, AIR) Girls indoors or hovering near doorways, sheltered from the elements, carrying umbrellas while boys are out in the rain (MMH) Pioneer women always cooking, sweeping, spinning wool, rocking babies (MMH) Pioneer woman riding in covered wagon while man walks (MMH) Lady of the manor doing needlepoint (MMH) Women selling cakes at a fair (MMH) Women as passengers on a sailboat or sipping hot chocolate in a ski lodge (MMH) Women defined by the accomplishments of others, such as husband or children (AIR) Women as nurses, elementary-school teachers, clerks, secretaries, tellers, hairdressers, librarians (MMH, HRW3) Women or girls as fearful, squeamish, passive, dependent, weepy, mechanically inept, frivolus, shrewish, nagging, easily defeated by simple problems (“just like a girl” or “just like a woman”) (HRW3) Females as passive recipients, observers of actions, or victims in need of rescue by others (MA, NYC) Men or boys who are brutish, violent, crude, harsh, insensitive (HRW3) Men or boys in active, problem-solving roles (MMH, SF-AW) Girls as frightened, weak (SF-AW, NYC) Girls as gentle, silly, illogical (SF-AW, ETS2) Girls as shrewish, nagging (SF-AW) Girls as indecisive, uncertain, confused (SF-AW) Girls suppressing anger (SF-AW) Girls as conformist, dependent, passive, cooperative (SF-AW, HRW, NYC) Girls as peaceful, emotional, warm (SF-AW) Girls as poor as math, science (SF-AW) Girls as neat (SF-AW, HRW3, MMH) Girls as shorter, smaller than boys (SF-AW) Men and boys as strong, brave, silent (AIR, RIV) Boys as strong, tough, competitive (SF-AW) Boys as curious, ingenious, able to overcome obstacles (NYC) Boys as intelligent, logical, mechanical (SF-AW, NYC) Boys as quiet, easygoing (SF-AW) Boys as active, brave, decisive problem-solvers (SF-AW, NYC) Boys as messy, unconcerned with appearance (SF-AW, NYC) Boys as independent, autonomous, loners (SF-AW, NYC) Boys as adventurous leaders, innovators (SF-AW, NYC) Boys expressing anger (SF-AW, AIR) Boys as unemotional, cold (SF-AW, NYC) Boys as athletic, outdoor-oriented (NYC) Boys as good at math, science (SF-AW) Boys as confident, concerned with achievement, career-oriented (SF-AW, NYC) Boys as violent (SF-AW) Banned General Racial Images:

People of color as universally athletic (AIR) Minority children or adults as passive recipients, observers of action, or victims in need of rescue by others (MA) People of color who become successful by accepting discrimination and working hard (NYC) People of color who abandon their own culture and language to achieve success (NYC) People of color as exotic, childlike, folkloric (NYC) People of color as gangsters and criminals (NYC) People of color living in poor urban areas (AIR, ETS1) People of color being angry (AIR) People of color as politically liberal (AIR) People of color belonging to any one religion (AIR) People of color valued as tokens or valued by whites as professional peers (AIR) People of color sharing a common culture or preferences (AIR) People of color sharing common dress (AIR) People of color sharing common personality traits (AIR) People of color sharing a common heritage, including language, dance, music, food preferences (AIR) Banned Black Images:

African Americans as great athletes, physically powerful (HRW1, AIR, MA, RIV, ETS1, ETS2) African Americans sharing common tastes in food (AIR) African Americans as musical, great sense of rhythm, terrific entertainers (MA) African American women as graceful (MA) African Americans speaking “black” language (MA) African Americans being lazy and shiftless, don’t want to work (MA) African American men who desert their families (MA) African American children having children and becoming welfare mothers (MA) African Americans as less intelligent than other groups (MA) African Americans who have white features or all look alike (MMH) African Americans who all have the same skin color (MMH, HRW1) African Americans with the same hairstyles and hair textures(MMH, HRW1) African Americans with exaggerated facial features (MMH) African Americans always wearing loud colors, straw hats, white suits, or conversely, standard, middle-class clothes (MMH) African Americans driving big cars and wearing flashy clothes (MA) People in Africa wearing native dress or wearing Westernized version of African costumes (MMH, HRW1) African Americans in crowded tenements on chaotic streets, big bright cars, abandoned buildings with broken windows and wash hanging out, or living in innocuous, dull, white-picket-fence neighborhoods (MMH) African Americans in low-paying jobs, unemployed, or on welfare (HRW1, AIR) African Americans in urban ghettos (HRW1, AIR, MA, ETS1, ETS2) African Americans who are unaware of their African heritage (ETS2) African Americans who are uneducated (high school dropouts (HRW1) African Americans as maids (RIV) African American woman as powerful “black matriarch” (NYC) African Americans living in urban environments (RIV) African Americans who are baggage handlers (HRW1) African Americans who are cleaning women/men (HRW1, NYC) African Americans in photos in the background or as the only minority in the photo (MMH, SF-AW, HRW1) African Americans playing only with toys from the mainstream or only with toys from their own culture (HRW1) African cultures portrayed as primitive or uncivilized (ETS1) Banned Native American Images:

Native Americans who speak broken English (MMH, HM2) Native Americans performing a rain dance (MMH) Children “playing Indian” (HM2) Native American males acting like fierce savages (MMH) Native Americans in low-paying jobs, drunk, unemployed, or on welfare (HRW1, AIR) Native Americans living in shacks on reservations, with outdoor water tanks and bleak landscapes (MMH, HRW1, ETS1) Native Americans who are uneducated (HRW1, ETS1, ETS2) Native Americans who are not part of the American mainstream (HRW1) Native Americans living in rural settings on reservations (HRW1, ETS1, ETS2) Native Americans with “how” gestures, warlike stances, look-alikes, caricatures (MMH, HRW1) Native Americans depicted in teepees, with totem poles, pinto horses with buffalo thundering by (MMH, HRW1) Native Americans with sameness of facial features, impassive expressions (MMH) Native Americans with long hair, braids, headbands (MMH, HRW1) Native Americans wearing full headdresses, feathers, beads, buffalo robes, war paint, holding bow and arrows (MMH, HRW1) Native Americans with red skin (MMH, HRW1) Native Americans hunting or in war parties or passing the peace pipe (MMH, HRW1) Modern Native Americans working on ranches, in menial jobs, or doing construction work (MMH, HRW1) Native Americans who are dependent on Caucasians (HM2) Native Americans playing only with toys from the mainstream culture or only with toys from their own culture (HRW1) Native American females sewing buffalo hides, grinding corn, carrying papooses (MMH, HRW1) American Indians portrayed as people who live in harmony with nature (AIR) American Indians portrayed as “closer to nature” than other Americans (ETS1, ETS2) American Indians as alcoholics, warriors, or thieves (AIR) American Indians who are craftspeople (HRW1) American Indians as primitive or warlike (AIR) Banned Asian Images:

Asians as very intelligent, excellent scholars (MA) Asian Americans with look-alike features for all ages: short, skinny, slanted eyes, wear glasses (MMH, MA) Asian Americans as a “model minority”, repressed, studious, goody-goody (SF-AW, RIV, HM2, MMH, MA) Asian Americans as ambitious, hard-working, and competitive (MA) Asian Americans as having strong family ties (MA) Asian Americans as quiet, polite, concerned with proper form (MA) Asian Americans as inscrutable, mysterious, concerned with saving face (MMH, MA) Asian Americans as frugal, passive, rigid, submissive, unathletic (SF-AW) Asian Americans as musical prodigies or class valedictorian (HM2) Asian Americans unable to speak English or uninvolved in mainstream America (HRW1) Asian Americans working as laundry workers, engineers, waiters, gardeners, health workers (HRW1) Asian Americans living in ethnic neighborhoods (AIR, ETS2) Asian Americans as predominantly refugees (AIR, ETS2) Asian Americans working in a laundry (AIR, RIV) Asian American males as peasants, coolies, waiters, laundry owners, math students (MMH, HRW1) Asian Americans working at vegetable stands (HRW1) Asian American females as doll-like, geisha-girl image, ingratiating to males (MMH, HRW1) Asian Americans playing only with toys from the mainstream culture or only with toys from their own culture (HRW1) Chinese people living and working only in Chinatown or in China working in rice fields (MMH, HRW1) Asian Americans shown with eyes as single, slanted lines; look alikes; straight black hair with bangs; buck teeth (MMH, HRW1) Modern Chinese males wearing pigtails and classes (HRW1) Modern Chinese women wearing high-collared cheong dresses (HRW1) Modern Chinese males with inscrutable grins, with folded or clasped hands or always wearing glasses and looking serious and polite (MMH, HRW1) Chinese people who have great food (MA) Chinese people who own or run laundries and restaurants (MA, NYC) Chinese people who love to gamble (MA) Chinese people who are cruel (MA) Modern Asian Americans wearing dark business suits and glasses (MMH) Hordes of Japanese with suits and cameras (MMH) Modern Japanese women wearing kimonos or carrying babies on their backs (HRW1, MMH) Japanese people who are law-abiding (MA) Japanese people who are great imitators (MA) Japanese people who are sneaky (MA) Japanese women who are servile and obedient (MA) Korean Americans owning or working in fruit markets (NYC) Banned Hispanic Images:

Latinos who are lazy or passive (HM2, MA) Latinos who are migrant workers (HM2) Latinos who have broken English (HM2, ETS1, ETS2) Latinos who wear serapes and sombreros (HM2) Latinos who are dependent on Caucasians (HM2) Hispanics with same facial features, skin color, size, hairstyles, men with mustaches (MMH, HRW1) Hispanic men who are excessively demonstrative and swaggering, women and girls who are shy and docile (MMH, HRW1) Hispanics who are warm, expressive, and emotional (MA) Hispanics who most often work in service or agricultural jobs (MA) Hispanics who refuse to learn English (MA) Hispanics who don’t value education (MA) Hispanic men who are macho, dominate women (MA) Hispanics who are lazy and shiftless (MA) Hispanics who are not punctual and frequently procrastinate (MA) Hispanics who don’t care if they are on welfare (MA) Hispanics who are violent, hot-tempered, and bloodthirsty (MA) Hispanics in low-paying jobs, unemployed, or on welfare (HRW1, AIR) Hispanics in urban settings (ghettos or barrios) (HRW1, AIR, ETS1, ETS2) Hispanics unable to speak English or uninvolved in mainstream America (HRW1) Hispanics as clothing workers (HRW1) Hispanics as farm laborers (HRW1) Hispanics as cleaning women/men (HRW1) Hispanics wearing bright colors, older women in black, girls always in dresses (MMH) Mexican men always wearing ponchos and wide-brimmed hats (MMH, HRW1) Mexicans always living in huts or men sleeping under huge hats (MMH, HRW1) Hispanics living in shacks or crowded tenements (MMH, HRW1) Mexicans grinding corn (MMH, HRW1) Hispanic young people always working on secondhand cars (MMH) Mexicans riding donkeys (MMH, HRW1) Mexicans employed in menial jobs, such as crop picking, delivering goods, waiting on tables (MMH, HRW1) Hispanics playing only with toys from the mainstream culture or only with toys from their own culture (HRW1) Banned Jewish Images:

Jews as diamond cutters, jewelers, doctors, dentists, lawyers, classical musicians, tailors, shopkeepers (HRW1) Jews with hooked noses; dark, kinky hair; hunched-over postures; heavy makeup and fancy hairstyles (HRW1) Jewish-princess image (HRW1) Jews always wearing business suits, glasses, and carrying briefcases (HRW1) Jews either in urban tenements or in wealthy neighborhoods, with nothing in between (HRW1) Jews playing only with toys from the mainstream culture or only with toys from their own culture (HRW1) Banned Old Person Images:

Older people as meddlesome, demanding, childish, unattractive, inactve, victims of ridicule and violence (MMH, NYC) Older people in nursing homes or with canes, walkers, wheelchairs, orthopedic shoes, or eyeglasses (HRW1) Older people as helpless and dependent on others to take care of them (AIR, NYC, ETS2, RIV) Older people as ill, physically weak, feeble, or dependent (AIR, NYC, ETS1) Older people as funny, absent-minded, fussy, or charming (NES) Older people who have twinkles in their eyes, need afternoon naps, lose their hearing or sight, suffer aches or pains (NES) Older people who are refired, are at the end of their careers, have lived the most fruitful years of their lives, or are engaged in a life of leisure activities (NES, NYC) Older persons who are either sweet and gentle or irritable and pompous (HM1) Older people with gray hair and in juvenile or faddish clothing or in worn, outdated clothing (HRW1) Older people in rocking chairs, knitting, napping, or watching television (HRW1) Older people who are isolated, inactive, or lonely (HRW1) Older people who are poor or living on welfare (HRW1) Older people as nonproductive members of society (HRW1, AIR, ETS2) Older people as senile, forgetful, or eccentric (HRW1, ETS2) Older people who are irritable, senile, withdrawn from the world (ETS2) Older people who are sickly, fragile, sedentary (ETS2) Older people living with their offspring or with other relatives (HRW1) Older people with peers, people of the same sex, or only with children (HRW1) Older people who are fishing, baking, knitting, whittling, reminiscing, rocking in chairs (SF-AW, NES, AIR, RIV) Older persons who are bent, bespectacled, dentured, dowdy, feeble, frail, gnarled, hard-of-hearing (SF-AW) Older persons who are hobbling, shuffling, stooped, trembling, white-haired, wheezing, wrinkled (SF-AW) Older persons who are cute, dear, docile, little, mild-mannered, spry, sweet, well-meaning (SF-AW) Older persons who are bitter, cantankerous, crabby, cranky, difficult (SF-AW) Older persons who are grumpy, meek, nagging, rigid, selfish, silly, stubborn (SF-AW) Older persons who are bored, dependent, inactive, sick, unhappy, weak, weary (SF-AW) Older persons who need government assistance because of financial problems (ETS2) Older persons who need or want to be pitied or patonized (ETS2) Older persons who suffer from physical deterioration (AIR) Banned Disabled Images:

Disabled people as helpless, passive, dependent, naive, childlike (HM1, AIR) Disabled people as segregated from mainstream society (AIR) Disabled people interacting only with other disabled people (AIR) Disabled people as victims (HM1, AIR, ETS2) Disabled people as objects of pity or curiosity (HM1) Disabled people as sinister characters; for example, pirates, witches, criminals (HM1, MMH) Nearsighted people bumping into things (HM1) People with disabilities as saintly like Tiny Tim (NYC) People with disabilities as victims of violence (NYC) People with disabilities as laughable, the brunt of jokes (NYC) People with disabilities as their own worst enemy (NYC) People with disabilities as sinister or evil, like Dr. Strangelove, “whose physical disability symbolizes moral depravity” (NYC) People with disabilities endowed with magic powers, “e.g the crippled newsboy who says the magic word and becomes Captain Marvel Jr. or the little Lame Prince who finds a magic carpet” (NYC) People with disabilities should be presented with an emphasis on their positive accomplishments, not their disabilities. (MA) People with disabilities being unproductive (AIR, ETS1, ETS2) People with disabilities sharing common needs or problems (AIR) People with disabilities as a burden to others (AIR) People with disabilities portrayed only as white and middle class (AIR) People with disabilities as heroic, inspirational, or courageous because of their disability (AIR, SF-AW, ETS1, ETS2) People with disabilities “overcoming” the disability or achieving “in spite of” it (SF-AW, ETS2) People with disabilities portrayed as invalids, patients, bitter, sickly, or victims (SF-AW, ETS1) Banned Gay Images:

Gays and lesbians as universally artistic (AIR) Gays and lesbians as outcasts (AIR) Gays and lesbians as living only in urban areas (AIR) Gays and lesbians as having emotional problems (AIR) Gays and lesbians as pedophiles (AIR) Banned Miscellaneous Images:

Dumb athletes (MMH) Stupid, beautiful women (MMH) Skinny intellectuals wearing glasses (MMH) Fat social misfits (MMH) Old ladies with twenty cats (MMH) Narrow-minded, prejudiced working-class people (MMH) Exemplary upper-class people of bygone days (MMH) Working-class people who are poor, lazy, intellectually inferior, and prone to violence (MMH) Working-class people who make ethnic or racial jokes or slurs (NYC) Working-class people who speak English ungrammatically and use vulgar language (NYC) Irish policemen (AIR, RIV) Children living in affluent suburbs (AIR, RIV) Children as healthy bundles of energy (AIR) Banned Textbook Topics:

Anthropomorphism in nonfiction (HM2) Behavior that will lead to dangerous situations, e.g. children should not go with strangers (HRW2) Bodily functions (HRW2) Brand names, corporate logos, or trademarks (HRW1, CA) Conflict with authority (parents, teachers, law) (HRW2) Controversial people, such as Malcolm X (HM2) Creation myths that present alternatives to biblical creation (HRW2) Crime (HRW2) Dialect (especially black dialect (HRW2, HM2) Divorce (HRW2) Drinking (HRW2, CA) Drugs (HRW2, CA) Ethnic groups in desperate situations (AEP) Euthanasia (HRW2) Evolution presented as fact rather than scientific theory (HRW2) Fighting (HRW2) Fire hazards (CA) Guns, shooting (HRW2) Illegitimacy (HRW2) Irreverent references to the Deity (HRW2) Liquor (HRW2, CA) Lying, or duplicity of any kind (HRW2) Name-calling (HRW2) Nudity (HRW2) Obscene or profane language (HRW2) Physical violence (HRW2) Poor nutrition, poor eating habits, junk food (HRW2, CA) Questions that ask students to describe their feelings. Say instead, “How do you think a person would feel if…?” (HRW2) References to Christmas, Easter, Hanukah (HRW2) References to humanism that might be interprted as giving it the status of a religion (HRW2) Religion (HRW2) Selections that imply that “white” behavior standards are needed for success (HAR1) Sex or sexuality (HRW2) “Situation ethics” in which the right or wrong of a given act is based on the situation in which it occurs rather than on an absolute standard of behavior (HRW2) Smoking (HRW2, CA) Stealing (HRW2) Stories about slavery, slaves (HM2) Suicide (HRW2) Unflattering comparisons between the sexes (HM1) Unpunished transgression (HRW2) Winter holidays (AEP) Banned Food References (HRW2):

Alcoholic drinks Bacon, salt pork Butter, margarine, lard Cakes Candy Coffee Condiments Corn chips Cream Cream cheese Doughnuts French fries Fruit punches Gravies Gum Honey Jam, jelly, preserves Juice drinks Ketchup Pickles Pies Potato chips Pretzels Salad dressings, mayonnaise Salad oil, shortening Salt Snack chips Soda pop Sour cream Sugar (all kinds) Sweet rolls Tea Water (Italian) ices Whipped cream Acceptable Food References (HRW2):

Meat (preferably unfried) Fish Poultry (unfried) Shellfish Eggs Cooked beans, peas Nuts Nut butters Seeds Milk Cheese Yogurt Cottage cheese Fruits Vegetables Fruit and vegetable juices (100 percent Enriched and whole-grain breads, rolls, muffins, biscuits Enriched and whole-grain cereals Enriched and whole-grain pastas Enriched and whole-grain rice Bulgur Cornmeal Enriched and whole-grain crackers Hamburgers Hot dogs Pizza Burritos Fish sandwiches Tacos Banned Test Topics:

Abortion (AIR, MA, NYS, ETS1, RIV, MI) Addiction (AIR, RIV) AIDS (AIR) Alcoholism (RIV) Alternative lifestyles (MI) Animal abuse (AIR, RIV) Animal rights (AIR) Aspirin or any other drugs (AIR, MI) Assisted suicide (MI) Being fired or losing a job (MI, RIV) Bible (MI) Birth control, condoms (NEB, MA, MI) Birthday celebrations (AIR, RIV) Blizzards (AIR) Brand-name products or corporate logos (AIR, CA) Cancer (or other serious illnesses) (AIR, RIV, HSV) Catastrophes such as fires or earthquakes; a tornado or hurricane may be acceptable if it is not too frightening (AIR, RIV) Child abuse (AIR, MA, RIV) Child neglect (NEB, MA) Children mistreating each other (AIR, RIV) Christmas (or other religious holiday celebrations) (AIR) Coming-out parties (AIR) Cotillions (AIR) Creatures from space (HSV) Creatures that are scary or dirty (e.g. rats, mice, roaches, snakes, lice) (AIR, RIV) Criticism of democracy or capitalism (HSV) Dancing (HSV) Dangerous situations (children home alone, swimming alone, extreme sports) (HSV) Death (AIR, NYS, RIV, HSV) Dinosaurs (implies evolution) (AIR, MI, HSV) Disease (AIR, RIV, HSV) Disobedient children (AIR, RIV, MI) Disrespect for authority (AIR, RIV, MI, HSV) Disrespectful or criminal behavior (AIR, RIV) Divorce (AIR, MA, RIV) Drugs and alcohol (AIR, MI, HSV) Euthanasia (AIR, ETS1, MI) Evolution, the origins of the universe (AIR, RIV, HSV) Expensive gifts (HSV) Extraterrestrials (AIR, RIV) Family issues (feelings about parents, siblings) (NEB, MA) Farms (specialized terms like gilt) (ETS1) Fighting terrorism (may reinforce prejudice) (MI) Fossils (implies evolution) (AIR, RIV) Gambling (AIR, RIV, MI, HSV) Gangs (AIR) Genetic engineering (MI) Ghosts (AIR, RIV) Giving birth, whether people or animals (AIR, RIV, MI) Gratuitous gore, such as animals eating other animals (AIR, RIV) Guns, gun control (AIR, RIV) Halloween (AIR, RIV, MI, HSV) High-priced consumer goods, such as a brand new ten-speed bicycle or a family vacation (AIR, MA, RIV) Home computers (HSV) Home swimming pools (HSV) Homelessness (may or may not be suitable) (MA) Homosexuality (MI) Hunting (HSV) Hurricanes (AIR) Incest (NEB, AIR) Injury (AIR) Junk bonds (AIR) Junk foods (AIR, CA, MI, HSV) Knives (RIV) Law (specialized terms such as tort) (ETS1) Life on other planets, aliens and flying saucers (if the implication of evolution can be made (MI) Magic (AIR, RIV, HSV) Masks (tainted by association with Halloween) (AIR, RIV) Military topics (terms such as smart bomb, stealth bomber, rapier, muzzle) (AIR, ETC1) Movies (HSV) Murder (AIR, MA (may or may not be suitable)) National defense (MI) National tragedies (such as World Trade Center) (MI, RIV) Native American religious references (animal gods, plants with a spirit, etc.) (AIR, RIV) New Age religion (AIR) Nonstandard English (slang, dialect, trendy expressions) (AIR) Nuclear issues: nuclear power, nuclear weapons (MI, HSV) Nudity, implied nudity (AIR, RIV, MI) Occult (MA) Oppression (AIR) Paganism (AIR, RIV, MI) Parapsychology (AIR, RIV, MI) Parents quarreling (AIR, RIV) Personal appearance (e.g. height and weight) (AIR, RIV) Personal information about self or family (RIV) Politics (AIR, RIV, MI, HSV) Politics (specialized terms like alderman) (ETS1) Pornography (AIR) Poverty (AIR) Pregnancy (RIV, MA (may or may not be suitable), MI) Profanity (MA) Pumpkins (tainted by association with Halloween) (AIR) Questioning parental authority (MA) Race relations (AIR) Racial prejudice (AIR, RIV, MI) Rap music (AIR, RIV) Rape (NEB, MA) Rats, mice, roaches, snakes, lice (RIV) Regional disasters (e.g. hurricanes in Florida, flooding in Texas) (RIV) Religion (AIR, RIV, MI, HSV) Religion/science conflicts (MI) Religious holidays (AIR, RIV, MI, HSV) Rock and roll music (AIR, RIV) Satanism (AIR, RIV, MI) Science (specialized terms like enzyme) (ETS1) Scientific creationism (MI) Secular humanism (AIR, MI) Serious car accidents (AIR) Sexuality (AIR, NEB, MA, MI, HSV) Sexual preference or orientation (MA) Sexually transmitted diseases (NEB, MA) Situation ethics (AIR, MI) Slavery (except in historical context) (AIR, HSV) Smoking (AIR) Social register (AIR) Someone getting fired or losing their job (AIR, RIV) Sorcery (MI) Sports (except for incidental references to a ball, game, score, or match) (AIR, ETS1) Suicide (AIR, MA) Supernatural (AIR, RIV) Technology (specialized terms like spreadsheet) (ETS1) Teen pregnancy (AIR) Thanksgiving (because it is a religious holiday) (AIR, RIV) Tobacco (MI, HSV) Tools and machinery (specialized terms like flange) (ETS1) Transportation (specialized terms like flatcar) (ETS1) Typhoons (AIR) Unemployment (AIR, RIV) Unhealthy foods (e.g. those that are fatty, sugary, or lack nutritional value (HSV) Unsafe situations (such as keeping dangerous animals or doing dangerous things) (AIR, RIV) Vacations in faraway places, ski trips, and other expensive items beyond the reach of all (AIR, HSV) Violence (AIR, ETS1, RIV, HSV) War (AIR, NYS, ETS1, HSV) Weapons (avoid mention of guns, knives, except in historical context) (AIR, MA, RIV) Witchcraft, witches (except in historical context in Massachusetts) (AIR, MA, RIV, MI, HSV) Yachting (AIR) Banned Test Material:

Any language or content that suggest economic, regional, cultural, or gender bias (NYS) Any language, content, or contxt that might be emotionally upsetting (NYS) Any language, content, or context that is offensive to males or females (NYS) Any language, content, or context that favors one racial or ethnic group over another (NYS) Any language, content, or context that portrays one or more racial or ethnic groups in a pejorative fashion (NYS) Any language, content, or context that favors one religion and demeans others (NYS) Any language, content, or context that portrays one or more religions or religious leaders in a pejorative manner (NYS) Any language, content, or context that is not accessible to one or more religions (NYS) Any language, content, or context that requires the parent, teacher, or student to support a position that is contrary to their religious beliefs (NYS) Any language, content, or context that portrays one or more age groups in a pejorative faction (NYS) Any language, content, or context that is offensive to one or more age groups (NYS) Any language, content, or context that degrades people on the basis of their physical appearance or their physical, cognitive, or emotional challenge (NYS) Any language, content, or context that focuses on a person’s disability rather than the whole person (NYS) Any language, content, or context that makes assumptions about what a disabled person can or cannot do (NYS) Any language, content, or context that requires a student to take a position that challenges parental authority (NYS) Any language, content, or context that presents violence gratuitously, disproportionately, or in an overly graphic manner (NYS) Any language, content, or context that presents inflammatory or highly controversial themes such as death, wars, abortion, etc. (NYS) Any language, content, or context that suggests that affluence is related to merit (NYS) Any language, content, or context that contains sexual innuendoes (NYS) Any language, content, or context that fails to denounce criminal, illegal, or dangerous behavior (NYS) Any older text or paintings that portray women in stereotypical or demeaning ways (ETS)
Photograph Rules:

All women should wear bras. (HSV) No noticeable bulges below the waist for men. (HSV) No hats or sunglasses or part of a uniform. (HSV) No bare feet. (HSV) No bandannas, head scarves, tight skirts, low cleavage, bare midriffs, shorts, sleeveless blouses, tank tops. (HSV) Shoes must have only black, brown, or white shoelaces. (HSV) Don’t show soles of shoes. (HSV) No designer tennis shoes, team jackets, or patches. (HSV) No religious jewelry. (HSV) No hanging keychains. (HSV) No big hair on women. (HSV) No boxer shorts showing. (HSV) No nail polish. (HSV) No visible tattoos, scars, broken teeth, moles, disfigurements. (HSV) Do not point with fingers. (HSV) Subjects should not eat with left hand. (HSV) No hand-holding or other displays of affection. (HSV) No gum-chewing. (HSV) No churches, adult theaters/bookstores, bars, or liquor stores in the background. (HSV) No holiday decorations. (HSV) Healthy meals only. (HSV) Dogs and cats should not be on the furniture. (HSV) Do not portray dead animals. (AEP) Do not show a man with his hands in his pockets (sexual innuendo). (AEP) Do not show someone wearing a cap backwards (gang symbol). (AEP) Do not show a person with sweat (sexual innuendo). (AEP) Do not portray scantily clad people, even in paintings or sculptures. (AEP) Do not show a rainbow in a photograph (gay agenda). (AEP) Do not portray a cows’s udder (sexual innuendo). (AEP) Do not portray poverty, especially in poor regions. (AEP) Do not show women cooking (stereotype). (AEP) Do not portray junk food, such as hot dogs. (AEP) Sources and Abbreviations:

ACT: Fairness Report for the ACT Assessment Tests, 1999-200 (ACT, 2000) AEP: Association of Education Publishers online newsletter, speech by Jonathan Rosenbloom of TIME Learning Ventures, September 3, 2002 AIR: American Institutes for Research, AIR Principles for Bias, Sensitivity, and Language Simplification, fall 2000 APA: American Psychological Association, Publication Manual, 4th ed. (APA, 1994), pp. 46-60 APhilA: American Philosophical Association, Guidelines for Non-Sexist Use of Language, www.apa.udel.edu/apa/publications/texts/nonsexist.html, 2001 CA: California Department of Education, Standards for Evaluating Instructional Materials for Social Content: 2000 Edition (California Department of Education, 2001 CT: Connecticut Department of Education, Fairness/Bias Review Guidelines for the Connecticut Mastery Test, 2002 ETS1: Educational Testing Service, Overview: ETS Fairness Review (ETS, 1998) ETS2: Educational Testing Service, Sensitivity Review Process: Guidelines and Procedures (ETS, 1992) HAR1: Harcourt, Striving for Fairness (unpublished document, for internal use by publishing company, 2001 HAR2: Harcourt Horizons, Editorial Guidelines (unpublished document, for internal use by publishing company and reviewers of its textbooks, 2001 HM1: Houghton Mifflin: Eliminating Stereotypes (Houghton Mifflin, 1981) HM2: Houghton Mifflin: HMR 2001: Guidelines for Literature Search (unpublished, for internal use by publishing company, 2001 HRW1: Holt, Rinehart and Winston School Department, Guidelines for the Treatment of People and Related Issues, 1981 HRW2: Holt, Rinehart and Winston School Department, Guidelines for Literature Selection, 1984 HRW3: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston School Department, The Treatment of Sex Roles, 1975 HRW4: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, General Style Guidelines for Social Studies, 2003 HSV: Harcourt/Steck-Vaughn, 1998 MA: Massachusetts Department of Education, Guidelines for Bias Review of the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System, March 3, 1998 MI: Michigan Sensitivity/Fairness Review Guidelines for Testing, 2003 MMH: Macmillan McGraw Hill, Reflecting Diversity (1993) NCTE: National Council of Teachers of English Guidelines for Gender – Fair Use of Language, 2002 NEB: Nebraska Department of Eduation, A Guide to Aid Nebraska School Districts in Addressing the Quality Components in the District Assessment Plans, April 2000 NES: National Evaluation Systems, Bias Issues in Test Development, 1991 NYC: New York City Board of Education, Promoting Bias-Free Curriculum Materials: A Resource Guide for Staff Development, 1988 NYS: New York State, Sensitivity and Bias Review of New York State Assessment (Albany, 2000), including “New York State Sensitivity Review Guidelines”, 2000 RIV: Bias and Sensitivity Concerns in Testing (Riverside Publishing, 1998) SF-AW: Scott Foresman-Addison Wesley, Multicultural Guidelines, 1996


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Able-bodied: banned   as offensive, replace with person who is non-disabled (SF-AW)
Able-bodied seaman, able seaman: banned   as sexist, replace with crewmember (HRW1, NES)
Abnormal: banned as demeaning to people   with disabilities (SF-AW, ETS2)
Actress: banned as sexist, replace with   actor (MMH, HM1, HAR2, NES)
Adam and Eve: replace with Eve and Adam   to demonstrate that males do not take priority over females (APhilA)
Addict: banned, replace with individual   with a drug addiction (NYS2)
Afflicted/afflicted with/afflicted   by/affliction: banned as a reference to persons with disabilities, replace   with a person who has… (SF-AW, HAR2, ETS2, NYS2)
Afro American: banned, replace with   African American (NYS2)
Aged, the: banned as demeaning to older   persons (HM1, NYS2)
Airman: banned as sexist, replace with   aviator (HRW)
Alcoholic: banned, replace with   individual with alcoholism (NYS2)
Alumna, alumnae, alumnus: banned as   sexist, replace with graduate, graduates (NYS2)
America, American: banned because it   suggests geographical chauvinism unless it refers to all people in North   America, South America, and Central America; refer instead to people of the   United States (SF-AW, HM1, HAR2, NES, NYS2)
American policy, American economy:   replace with U.S. policy, U.S. economy (NES)
Anchorman: banned as sexist, replace with   anchor person, newscaster (HM1, NES, NYS2)
Anglo American: banned, replace with   Western European or White as preferred generic terms for the groups of   light-skinned people in the United States who are of European ancestry, if   reference to an individual’s race, ethnicity, or ancestry must be made (NYS2)
Arthritic patient: banned as offensive,   replace with person who has arthritis (SF-AW)
Assemblyman, assemblywoman: banned as   sexist, replace with member of the assembly (NYS2)
Authoress: banned as sexist, replace with   author (HM1, HRW3, NES, ETS2, NCTE, NYS2)
Autistic: banned, replace with individual   with autism (NYS2)
Average man: banned as sexist, replace   with average person (MMH, HM1, NES)
Average working man: banned as sexist,   replace with the average worker (SF-AW)
Aviatrix: banned as sexist, replace with   aviator (HM1, HAR1, HRW3, NES, ETS2)
Babe: banned as sexist (HM1)
Backward: banned as ethnocentric when it   refers to a cultural or ethnic group (HM1, SF-AW, AIR)
Backward country: banned as ethnocentric   when referring to cultural differences (SF-AW, ACT)
Backwoodsman: banned as sexist, replace   with pioneer (HRW1)
Ball and chain: banned as sexist, replace   with spouse, wife, partner, mate (MMH, ETS2)
Barbarian: banned as ethnocentric when it   refers to a cultural or ethnic group (HM1)
Baseman: banned as sexist, replace with   infielder (HRW1)
Batsman: banned as sexist, replace with   batter (HRW1)
Beast: banned as offensive when it refers   to a person (HM1)
Bellman: banned as sexist, replace with   bellhop (HRW1)
Best man for the job, the: banned as   sexist, replace with best candidate (ETS2)
Better half, the: banned as sexist,   replace with spouse, wife, partner, mate (ETS2)
Biddy: banned as ageist, demeaning to   older women (SF-AW)
Birdman: banned as sexist, replace with   ornithologist (HRW1)
Birth defect: banned as offensive,   replace with people with congenital disabilities (SF-AW)
Bitch: banned as reference to female dog   (MMH)
Black/blacks: banned as a noun (HAR2,   SF-AW, HRW4)
Black/blacks: banned as a predicate   adjective (HRW4)
Black: banned as adjective meaning evil   (CT)
Black and white, black or white: banned,   replace with either-or, all good or all bad, day and night (NYS2)
Blind, the: banned as offensive, replace   with people who are blind (SF-AW, HM1, HAR1, NES, ETS1, ETS2, RIV, NYS2)
Blind as a bat: banned as handicapism   (NYC)
Blind leading the blind: banned as   handicapism (NYC)
Blue collar: banned, replace with   specific occupation or job (NYS2)
Boatman: banned as sexist, replace with   boat operator (NES)
Bookworm: banned as offensive, replace   with intellectual (HM1)
Border patrolman: banned as sexist,   replace with border guard (NES)
Boyish figure: banned as sexist, replace   with youthful figure (HM1)
Boys: use only to refer to males up to   thirteen (NYS2)
Boys’ night out: banned as sexist (NES)
Brave: banned as offensive when it refers   to a Native American person (HRW1, HM1, HRW4)
Brotherhood: banned as sexist, replace   with amity, unity, community (MMH, SF-AW, HRW3, CT, APhilA)
Brotherhood of man, the: banned as   sexist, replace with the human family, solidarity, affection, collegiality,   unity, congeniality (APhilA, NYS2)
Bubbler: banned as regional bias, replace   with water fountain
Buck: banned as objectionable when   referring to Native American male (SF-AW)
Busboy: banned as sexist, replace with   dining room attendant (NES)
Busybody: banned as sexist, demeaning to   older women (SF-AW)
Cabin boy: banned as sexist, replace with   ship’s steward (HRW1)
Cameraman: banned as sexist, replace with   camera operator, camera technician (HAR1, NES, NYS2)
Cancer patient: banned, replace with   patient with cancer (NYS2)
Career girl: banned as sexist, replace   with specific occupation (NES, ETS2)
Career woman: banned as sexist, replace   with specific occupation (NES, ETS2)
Cassandra: banned as sexist, replace with   pessimist (AIR)
Cattleman: banned as sexist, replace with   cattle rancher (HRW1)
Caucasian: banned, replace with White or   European American if reference to an individual’s race, ethnicity, or   ancestry must be made (NYS2)
Caveman: banned as sexist, replace with   cave dweller (HM1, HRW3)
Chairman, chairwoman: banned as sexist,   replace with chair or chairperson or moderator or presiding officer (MMH,   SF-AW, HM1, HAR1, HRW3, NES, ETS2, APA, NYS2)
Chicana, Chicano: use only if an   individual request to be identified by this term (NYS2)
Chicano: avoid unless referring   specifically to the Chicano movement of the 1960s and 1970s (HRW4)
Chick: banned as sexist (HM1)
Chief: banned as a noun referring to a   Native American leader (HRW1)
Chief: banned, replace with principal,   primary (NYS2)
Chief Sitting Bull: banned as relic of   colonialism, replace with Totanka Iotanka (NYC)
Chippewa: banned as inauthentic, replace   with Ojibwa or Anishinabe (SF-AW)
City fathers: banned, replace with city   leaders (NYS2)
Cleaning woman, cleaning lady: banned as   sexist, replace with housekeeper, custodian, janitor (HM1, HAR1, NES, ETS2)
Clergyman, clergywoman: banned as sexist,   replace with member of the clergy (HM1, HAR, NES, NYS2)
Codger, old codger: banned as demeaning   to older men (SF-AW, HM1)
Coed: banned as sexist, replace with   student (MMH, NES, ETS1, ETS2, NCTE, NYS2)
Colored: banned as offensive, refer to   specific group (HM1)
Confined to a wheelchair: banned as   offensive, replace with person who is mobility impaired (HAR1, ETS2, HRW4)
Congenital disability: banned, replace   with a disability that has existed in an individual since birth (NYS2)
Congressman: banned as sexist, replace   with member of congress, representative (SF-AW, HM1, HAR1, HAR2, HRW3, ETS2,   NYS2)
Costume: banned as offensive when   referring to the clothing of a specific group, replace with clothing (SF-AW)
Councilman: banned as sexist, replace   with council member (NES, NYS2)
Countryman, countrywoman: banned, replace   with citizen (NYS2)
Courageous: banned as patronizing when   referring to a person with disabilities (ETS2)
Cover girl: banned as sexist, replace   with model (HRW1)
Cowboy, cowgirl: banned as sexist,   replace with cowhand (HRW1)
Craftsman: banned as sexist, replace with   craft worker, craftperson, artist (MMH, NES, NYS2)
Crazy, crazy person: banned as offensive,   replace with person with an emotional disability or a mental impairment   (SF-AW, HM1, HAR1, NES)
Creature: banned when regerring to people   with disabilities (SF-AW)
Credit to his/her race: banned as racist,   replace with a great American or a great pesron (SF-AW)
Cripple, crippled: banned as offensive,   replace with orthopedic disability, person with a mobility impairment (SF-AW,   HM1, HAR2, NES, NYC, ETS2, NYS2)
Crippled children: banned as offensive,   replace with children who are disabled (HAR1)
Cro-Magnon man: banned as sexist, replace   with Cro-Magnon people (MMH)
Crone: banned as demeaning to older women   (SF-AW)
Crotchety: banned as reference to older   persons (HM1)
Cult: banned as ethnocentric when   referring to a religious group (SF-AW, ETS2)
Culturally deprived: banned as   ethnocentric when referring to a racial, ethnic, or cultural group (HM1, ACT)
Culturally disadvantaged: banned as   ethnocentric reference to cultural differences (ACT)
Dame: banned as sexist, replace with   woman (HM1)
Dark Continent: banned as racist, replace   with Africa (SF-AW, AIR, RIV)
Deaf, the: banned as offensive, replace   with people who are deaf or a person with loss of hearing (SF-AW, HM1, NES,   ETS2, NYS2)
Deaf and dumb: banned as offensive   (SF-AW, HM1, NES, NYC, HRW4)
Deaf-mute: banned as offensive, replace   with person who can’t hear or speak (SF-AW, HM1, HAR1, NES)
Defective: banned when referring to   people with disabilities (SF-AW)
Deformed: banned as offensive, replace   with person with physical disability (SF-AW)
Delivery boy, deliveryman: banned as   sexist, replace with deliverer, messenger (HAR, NES, NYS2)
Deprived: banned, replace with reference   to what an individual has been deprived of (NYS2)
Devil: banned (AEP)
Diabetic: banned, replace with individual   with diabetes (NYS2) Dialect: banned as ethnocentric, use sparingly, replace   with language (SF-AW)
Differently abled: banned as offensive,   replace with person who has a disability (SF-AW)
Dirty old man: banned as sexist and   ageist (NYC)
Disabled, the: banned as offensive,   replace with people with a disability (SF-AW, HAR1, NYS2)
Disadvantaged: banned, replace with   reference to the resources or rights that are absent in an individual’s or   group’s life circumstances (NYS2)
Dissenter: ethnocentric, use with caution   (ETS2)
Distaff side, the: banned as sexist   (ETS2)
Divorcé, divorceé: banned, replace with   divorced person or person who is divorced if reference to an individual’s   marital status is necessary at all (NYS2)
Dogma: banned as ethnocentric, replace   with doctrine, belief (SF-AW) Doorman: banned as sexist, replace with door   attendant (HRW1)
Down’s syndrome: banned as offensive,   replace with Down syndrome (ETS2)
Draftsman: banned as offensive, replace   with drafter (NES, NYS2)
Drunk, drunken, drunkenness: banned as   offensive when referring to Native Americans (SF-AW, HM2)
Duffer: banned as demeaning to older men   (SF-AW)
Dummy: banned as offensive, replace with   people who are speech impaired (SF-AW)
Dwarf: banned as offensive, replace with   person of short stature (SF-AW, HAR1)
Early man: banned as sexist, replace with   early human (HAR1, NES)
East, Eastern: banned as Eurocentric when   used to discuss world geography; refer to specific continent or region   instead (HAR2)
Economically disadvantaged: banned as   ethnocentric reference to racial, ethnic, or cultural group (HM1)
Egghead: banned as offensive, replace   with intellectual (HM1)
Elderly, the: banned as ageist, replace   with older persons (SF-AW, APA)
Eskimo: banned as inauthentic, replace   with Inupiat and Yupik or Native Arctic peoples (SF-AW, ETS1) or replace with   Inuit, Inupiak, Yupik, Yuit or Native Arctic peoples (note Yupik and Yuit are   not interchangeable) (HAR2)
Ethnic: avoid the use of this word as a   noun (NYS2)
Exceptionalities: banned as patronizing   to people with disabilities (ETS2)
Executrix: banned, replace with executor   (NYS2)
Exotic: banned when referring to Asian   Americans (SF-AW)
Extremist: banned as ethnocentric,   replace with believer, follower, adherent (SF-AW)
Factory foreman: banned as sexist,   replace with supervisor (ETS2)
Fair sex: banned as sexist, replace with   woman or female (HM1, NES, AIR, ETS2)
Fairy: banned because it suggests   homosexuality, replace with elf (AEP)
Family of man: banned, replace with human   race, civilization (NYS2)
Fanatic: banned as ethnocentric, replace   with believer, follower, adherent (SF-AW)
Fat: banned, replace with heavy, obese   (AEP)
Feebleminded: banned as offensive,   replace with person with mental disability (HM1, NES)
Fellow: banned, replace with scholar,   award recipient, postgraduate unless referring to a specific academic award   (NYS2)
Fellowship: banned as sexist, replace   with friendship (HRW3)
Fellow worker: banned as sexist, replace   with coworker (NES)
Feminine wiles: banned as sexist, replace   with wiles (HM1)
Filly: banned as sexist, unless one means   a female horse (MMH)
Fireman: banned as sexist, replace with   firefighter (MMH, HM1, HAR1, HRW3, NES, AIR, ETS2, NYS2)
Fisherman: banned as sexist, replace with   fisher, angler (MMH, HAR1, NES, NYS2)
Forefathers: banned as sexist, replace   with ancestors, precursors (MMH, SF-AW, NES, CT, NYS2)
Foreman: banned as sexist, replace with   supervisor, manager (MMH, HAR1, NES, NYS2)
Founding Fathers: banned as sexist,   replace with the founders, the framers (HM1, HAR1, HRW3, APhilA, NYS2)
Four eyes: banned as offensive to the   visually impaired (HM1)
Fraternity: banned as sexist, replace   with community, kinship, solidarity, collegiality (APhilA)
Fraternize: banned as sexist (HRW3)
Freak: banned as demeaning to person with   disability (SF-AW)
Freshman: banned as sexist, replace with   first-year student (SF-AW, NES, NYS2)
Frontiersmen: banned as sexist, replace   with pioneers, forebears, settlers (HAR1)
Gal: banned as sexist (SF-AW, HM1)
Gal Friday, Girl Friday: banned as sexist   (HRW3, HM1, AIR)
Garbageman: banned as sexist, replace   with garbage collector, trash collector (HAR1)
Gay: banned, as it suggests homosexual,   replace with happy, lighthearted (AEP)
Geezer: banned as demeaning to older men   (SF-AW)
Gentleman’s agreement: banned, replace   with informal agreement
Geriatric patient: banned as demeaning to   older persons (SF-AW)
Ghetto: banned, replace with reference to   socioeconomic characteristics of a particular neighborhood if necessary   (NYS2)
Gimp: banned as offensive to person with   mental or physical disability (SF-AW, HM1)
Girl: banned except for reference to   females under sixteen (MMH, SF-AW, HM1, HRW3, NES, ETS2)
Girlish laughter: banned as sexist,   replace with laughter (HM1)
Girls: use only to refer to females up to   thirteen (NYS2)
Girls, the: banned as sexist (NES)
God: banned (AEP)
Golden Agers: banned as ageist, replace   with older persons or persons who are older (HM1, SF-AW)
Grandfather clause: banned, replace with   retroactive coverage, retroactive exemption (NYS2)
Grass: avoid as it may have a negative or   dirty connotation (MI)
Gringo: banned as offensive (NES)
Groundsman: banned as sexist, replace   with grounds worker (NES)
Grow to manhood: banned as sexist,   replace with grow to adulthood (ETS2)
Guys: banned as sexist, replace with   students, class, folks, all of you, third graders (NCTE)
Gypsy, gypsies: banned, replace with Rom   or Romani or Roma or Romanies (NYS2)
Handicap, the handicapped, handicapped   person: banned as offensive, replace with disability, person with a   disability (HAR1, NES, ETS1, ETS2, NYS2)
Handyman: banned as sexist, replace with   maintenance worker (NES)
He: banned as sexist, replace with he or   she or they (AIR)
Headman: banned as sexist, replace with   leader (HRW1)
Hearing-impaired: banned as offensive,   replace with deaf or hard-of-hearing (ETS2, HRW4)
Heathen: banned as ethnocentric when   referring to religion, replace with nonbeliever (SF-AW, NYC, ETS2)
Heathen: banned when referring to   American Indians (SF-AW, HM1, HM2, NYC)
Heiress: banned as sexist, replace with   heir (HM1)
Hell: banned, replace with heck, darn   (AEP)
He-man: banned as sexist (CT)
Henpecked husband: banned as sexist (MMH,   NES)
Heretic: use with caution when comparing   religions (ETS2)
Heroine: banned as sexist, replace with   hero (SF-AW, HAR2, NES, NYS2)
Hispanic American: use with caution as   some groups object to the term’s suggestion of a shared European cultural   heritage, replace with specific nationality (NES)
Homeless: banned, replace with   individuals who are homeless, persons without homes (NYS2)
Homosexual: banned, replace with person,   child
Hordes: banned as reference to immigrant   groups (CT)
Horseman, horsewoman: banned as sexist,   replace with equestrian (HRW1)
Horsemanship: banned as sexist, replace   with riding skill (NES)
Hostess: banned, replace with host (NYS2)
Hottentot: banned as a relic of   colonialism, replace with Khoi-khoi
Househusband: banned, replace with   homemaker, one who works at home (NYS2)
Houseman, housemaid: banned as sexist,   replace with servant, housekeeper (HRW1)
Housewife: banned as sexist, replace with   homemaker, head of the household (SF-AW, HAR1, HAR2, NES, ETS2, NYS2)
Hussy: banned as sexist (SF-AW)
Huts: banned as ethnocentric, replace   with small houses (SF-AW)
Hypochondriac: banned, replace with   individual with hypochondriasis (NYS2)
Idiot: banned as offensive to person with   mental disability (SF-AW, HM1, NES)
Illegal alien: banned, replace with   undocumented worker, undocumented resident (NYS2)
Illegitimate: banned, it is usually not   necessary to mention the circumstances of a person’s birth (NYS2)
Illiterate: banned, specify if an   individual is unable to read or write, or both (NYS2)
Imbecile: banned as offensive to person   with mental disability (HM1, NES)
Inconvenienced: banned as patronizing to   people with disabilities (ETS2)
Indian: avoid unless referring to someone   who is from India (HRW-4)
Indian giver: banned as offensive (NYC)
Insane: banned as offensive, replace with   person who has an emotional disorder or psychiatric illness (SF-AW, HM1, NES)
Inscrutable: banned when referring to   Asian Americans (SF-AW, MMH)
Inspirational: banned as patronizing when   referring to a person with disabilities (ETS2)
Insurance man: banned as sexist, replace   with insurance agent (MMH, HAR1, HRW3, NES, ETS2)
Invalid: banned when referring to a   person with disabilities (ETS2)
Jewess: banned as sexist, replace with   Jew (NES)
Journeyman: banned as sexist, replace   with certified artisan or specify the occupation (NYS2, NES)
Jungle: banned, replace with rain forest,   savannah (AEP)
Junior executive: banned, replace with   executive trainee (NYS2)
Junk bonds: banned as elitist (ETS1,   ETS2)
Junkman: banned as sexist, replace with   junk dealer (HRW1)
Juvenile delinquent: banned, replace with   juvenile offender, youthful offender (NYS2)
Kaffir: banned as a relic of colonialism,   replace with African (NYC)
King Philip: banned as reference to a   Native American leader, replace with Metacome (NYC)
Kinsman: banned as sexist, replace with   relative (HRW1, NYS2)
Ladies, the: banned as sexist (NES)
Lady: banned as sexist (MMH, SF-AW, HM1,   NYS2)
Lady doctor: banned as sexist (MMH)
Lady lawyer: banned as sexist (HRW3, NES,   ETS1, ETS2, NCTE)
Ladylike: banned as sexist, replace with   feminine (HRW3)
Lame: banned as offensive, replace with   walks with a cane (SF-AW)
Landlord, landlady: banned as sexist,   replace with owner (NES, NYS2)
Latin American: use with caution, as some   groups resent the term’s insensitivity to national differences, and some find   it inaccurate, since not all such people speak a Latin-based language.   Replace with specific nationality. (NES)
Laundress, laundryman: banned as sexist,   replace with laundry worker (HRW1)
Layman: banned as sexist, replace with   layperson, nonexpert, nonspecialist (NES, NYS2)
Lazy: banned as adjective when referring   to American Indians (SF-AW)
Letterman: banned as sexist, replace with   student who has won a letter (HRW1)
Limping along: banned as handicapism   (NYC)
Lineman: banned as sexist, replace with   line installer (MMH, NES)
Linesman: banned as sexist, replace with   sports official (HRW)
Little person: banned as offensive,   replace with person of small stature (SF-AW, HAR1)
Little woman, the: banned as sexist,   replace with wife, spouse, partner, mate (HM1, HRW3, ETS1, ETS2)
Longshoreman: banned as sexist, replace   with dock worker (NES)
Lumberman, lumberjack: banned as sexist,   replace with woodcutter (NES)
Lunatic: banned as offensive, replace   with person with a psychiatric illness (SF-AW)
Maid: banned as sexist, replace with   house cleaner (ETS2)
Maiden name: banned, replace with birth   name (NYS2)
Mailman: banned as sexist, replace with   mail carrier (MMH, HRW1, HM1, HAR1, HRW3, NES, ETS2, NYS2)
Maintenance man: banned, replace with   maintenance worker, maintenance engineer (NYS2)
Majorette: banned, replace with major
Majority group: banned as offensive   reference to cultural differences (ACT)
Male nurse: banned as sexist, replace   with nurse (MMH, SF-AW, HM1, NES, ETS, NCTE)
Male secretary: banned as sexist, replace   with secretary (HM1)
Man: banned as a sexist verb, as in man   the sailboats or man the trucks (MMH, NES, NYS2)
Man, mankind, men: banned as sexist,   replace with humankind, the human race, humanity, persons, people, figures,   personalities, women and men, men and women (MMH, HM1, HAR1, HAR2, NES, AIR,   MA, NYC, ETS2)
Man’s achievement: refer instead to human   achievement (MMH, NES, ETS2)
Man and wife: banned as sexist, replace   with husband and wife (MMH, SF-AW, HAR1, ETS2)
Manhood: banned as sexist, replace with   adulthood, maturity (HM1, NES)
Man-hour: banned as sexist, replace with   work hour, total hours (HAR1, NES, NYS2)
Manhunt: banned as sexist, replace with   hunt for a person (HRW1)
Maniac: banned as offensive to persons   with a psychiatric disability (HM1, NES)
Mankind: banned as sexist, replace with   humankind, humanity, human beings, people (NES, NYC, ETS2, RIV, NYS2)
Manly: banned as sexist (MMH)
Man-made: banned as sexist, replace with   artificial, synthetic, manufactured (MMH, HM1, HAR1, HRW3, NES, AIR, NYC,   ETS2, CT, NYS2)
Manned space flight: banned, replace with   piloted, with crew, with staff (NYS2)
Mannish: banned as sexist (HRW3)
Man-of-war: banned as sexist, replace   with warship (HRW1)
Man on the street: banned as sexist,   replace with the average person (MMH, HM1, RIV, NES)
Manpower: banned as sexist, replace with   human power, workers, personal strength, workforce, human energy (MMH, SF-AW,   HM1, HAR1, NES, AIR, NYC, ETS2, NYS2)
Man-size job: banned as sexist, replace   with big, enormous (HRW3, ACT, ETS2, NCTE, NYS2)
Masculine drive: banned as sexist (HM1)
Massacre: banned as offensive when   referring to Native Americans (HM2)
Master, owner: banned when referring to   slavery, replace with holder or slave-holder (HRW4)
Master copy: banned, replace with primary   copy (NYS2)
Master plan: banned, replace with   comprehensive plan, overall plan (NYS2)
Masterpiece: banned, replace with work of   art, work of genius, greatest work NYS2)
Mastery: banned, replace with   proficiency, skill, expertise (NYS2)
Maven: banned as regional or ethnic bias   (ETS1)
Mental deficiency: banned as insensitive   (ETS2)
Mentally ill, the: banned as offensive,   replace with person with a mental or emotional disability (HM1, HAR1, NES,   ETS2, APA)
Mentally retarded: banned as offensive,   replace with person with mental retardation (SF-AW)
Middle East: banned as reflecting a   Eurocentric worldview, replace with Southwest Asia; may be acceptable,   however, as a historical reference (HAR2)
Midget: banned as offensive, replace with   person of short stature (SF-AW, HAR1)
Milkman: banned as sexist, replace with   delivery person (HRW1)
Minority: banned, replace with   historically underrepresented group or member of such group (NYS2)
Minority group: banned as offensive   reference to cultural differences (ACT)
Mister, the: banned as synonym for   husband (HM1)
Mongoloid: banned as offensive, replace   with person with Down syndrome (SF-AW, HM1, NES, NYC)
Mother Russia: banned as sexist, replace   with Russia, vast land of rich harvests (HM1)
Mothering banned as sexist, replace with   nurturing, parenting (APA)
Motherland, fatherland: banned as sexist,   replace with native land (HRW1)
Mrs., the: banned as synonym for wife   (HM1)
Mulatto: banned as racist (NES)
Mute: banned as handicapism when used as   a noun (NYC)
Mysterious: banned when referring to   Asian Americans (SF-AW)
Myth: banned when referring to   traditional beliefs of American Indians, replace with story or narrative   (SF-AW)
Native: banned when referring to a Native   American person, banned also when used as a noun (HM1, NYC)
Navajo: banned as inauthentic, replace   with Diné (SF-AW)
Needy: banned, replace with individual in   need (NYS2)
New World: banned in nonfiction (HSV)
Newsboy: banned as sexist, replace with   newspaper carrier (NES, NYS2)
Newsman, newswoman: banned as sexist,   replace with newsperson, reporter (HRW1, NES, NYS2)
Newspaperman: banned as sexist, replace   with reporter (HRW1)
Niggardly: banned, replace with frugal,   cheap (AEP)
Night watchman: banned as sexist, replace   with night guard
Nobleman: banned as sexist, replace with   member of the nobility or noble (HRW1)
Non-Western: banned, replace with   reference to specific nation, region, culture (NYS2)
Nonwhite: banned, replace with people of   color or specific race (NYS2)
Normal: banned as offensive, replace with   a person without disabilities (SF-AW, ETS2, NYS2)
Office boy: banned as sexist, replace   with messenger, office helper (NES)
Old: banned as an adjective that implies   helplessness, dependency, or other negative conceptions (NYC)
Old folks: banned as ageist, replace with   persons who are older (HM1)
Old hag: banned as offensive (NYC)
Old lady: banned as demeaning to older   women (SF-AW)
Old lady, the: banned as sexist when   referring to one’s wife (HRW3)
Old maid: banned as both sexist and   ageist (SF-AW, HM1, NCTE)
Old maidish: banned as sexist (HRW3)
Old man: banned as demeaning to older men   (SF-AW, HRW3)
Old man, the: banned as synonym for   husband (HM1, HRW3)
Old witch: banned as offensive (NYC)
Old wives’ tales: banned as sexist,   replace with folk wisdom
Ombudsman: banned as sexist, replace with   ombuds (NYS2, NES)
One-man band: banned as sexist, replace   with one-person performance (MMH)
One-man show: banned as sexist, replace   with solo performance (MMH)
Orient, Oriental: banned as offensive,   replace with Asian, Japanese, etc. (SF-AW, MMH, HAR2, NES, NYS2)
Overcoming a disability: banned as   offensive when referring to a person with a disability (ETS2)
Pagan: banned as ethnocentric when   referring to religion, replace with nonbeliever (SF-AW, HM1, ETS2)
Paper boy: banned as sexist, replace with   paper deliverer
Papoose: banned as demeaning to Native   Americans (MMH, SF-AW, HM1, HM2)
Paralytic: banned as offensive, replace   with person who uses crutches (SF-AW)
Paraplegic: banned as offensive, replace   with people with paraplegia (SF-AW, NYS2)
Past one’s prime: banned as demeaning to   older persons (SF-AW)
Peculiar: banned when it refers to   religious practices or beliefs (SF-AW)
Penmanship: banned as sexist, replace   with handwriting, script, writing (NYS2)
Physically challenged: banned as   patronizing to persons who have a physical disability (SF-AW, ETS2)
Pink collar: banned, replace with   specific occupation or job (NYS2)
Plainsman: banned as sexist, replace with   plains dweller (HRW1)
Poetess: banned as sexist, replace with   poet (SF-AW, HM1, HAR1, HRW3, NES, ETS2, NCTE, NYS2)
Policeman, policewoman: banned as sexist,   replace with police officer (MMH, HM1, HAR1, HRW3, NES, AIR, NYS2)
Politically correct: use with caution,   generally used to dismiss or discount an issue involving fairness or equity   (NYS2)
Pollyanna: banned as sexist, replace with   optimist
Polo: banned as elitist (ETS1, ETS2)
Poor: banned, replace with living in   poverty, living below the poverty line or cite the individual’s specific   income (NYS2)
Pop: banned as regional bias when   referring to soft drink, replace with Coke, Pepsi, however note that brand   names by California social content review guidelines (AIR)
Postman: banned as sexist, replace with   mail carrier (MMH, HRW1)
Postmaster, postmistress: banned as   sexist, replace with post office director (HRW1)
Pressman: banned as sexist, replace with   press operator (NES)
Primitive: banned as ethnocentric when   referring to racial, ethnic, religious, or cultural groups (SF-AW, HM1, NES,   NYC, AIR, ACT, ETS2, NYS2)
Primitive man: banned as sexist, replace   with primitive peoples (HAR1, HAR2, NES)
Profoundly deaf: banned as offensive,   replace with person with loss of hearing (HAR1)
Provider, the: banned as synonym for   husband (HM1)
Public-relations man: banned as sexist,   replace with public-relations specialist (NES)
Quota: use with caution, as it is often   used to dismiss or discount individuals, issues, or programs concerned with   inclusion, fairness, and equity (NYS2)
Quadriplegic: banned, replace with   individual with quadriplegia (NYS2)
Red man: banned when referring to a   Native American man (HM1, AIR, RIV)
Redskin: banned when referring to   American Indian (SF-AW, HM1)
Regatta: banned as elitist (ETS1)
Repairman: banned as sexist, replace with   repair person, maintenance person, plumber, carpenter, etc. (HRW1, HAR1,   HAR2, NES, NYS2)
Retard: banned as objectionable to people   with disabilities (SF-AW, HM1, NES)
Retardate: banned as offensive (NES)
Retarded, the: banned as offensive,   replace with peson who is developmentally disabled (HM1, HAR1, ETS2)
Right-hand man: banned as sexist, replace   with closest associate or assistant (HM1, HRW3, NES)
Roaming the land: banned as reference to   Native Americans (CT)
Rocking-chair brigade: banned as ageist   (HM1)
Roving the land: banned as reference to   Native Americans (CT)
Salesman, saleswoman: banned as sexist,   replace with sales representative (MMH, SF-AW, HRW1, HM1, HAR1, HRW3, NES,   ETS2, NYS2)
Satan: banned (AEP)
Savages: banned when referring to Native   Americans (CT)
Schoolgirl, schoolboy: banned as sexist,   replace with schoolchild (HRW1)
Sculptress: banned as sexist, replace   with sculptor (MMH, HM1)
Seaman: banned as sexist, replace with   sailor (HRW1)
Seamstress: banned as sexist, replace   with sewing machine operator, sewer, garment attendant (NES, NYS2)
Sect: banned as ethnocentric when   referring to a religious group, unless it separated from an established   religion (SF-AW, ETS2)
Senile: banned as demeaning to older   persons (SF-AW, HM1, NYS2)
Senility: banned as demeaning, replace   with dementia (APA)
Senior citizen: banned as demeaning to   older persons (SF-AW)
Serviceman: banned as sexist, replace   with member of the armed services, gas station attendant (HRW1)
Showman: banned as sexist, replace with   showperson, entertainer, producer (MMH, HRW1)
Sickly: banned as demeaning reference to   person with disabilities (ETS2)
Sightless: banned as offensive, replace   with people who are blind (SF-AW)
Sioux: banned as inauthentic, replace   with Lakota, Dakota, or Nakota (SF-AW)
Sissy: banned as demeaning (MMH, SF-AW,   NES, CT)
Sissified: banned as demeaning (HRW3)
Slave: replace whenever possible with   enslaved person, enslaved African, worker, or laborer (AEP, HRW4)
Sneaky: banned when referring to Asian   Americans (SF-AW)
Snow ball: banned for regional bias,   replace with flavored ice (AIR)
Snow cone: banned for regional bias,   replace with flavored ice (AIR)
Snowman: banned, replace with snowperson   (AEP)
Sob sister: banned as sexist, replace   with exploitative journalist (NES, AIR)
Soda: banned for regional bias, replace   with Coke, Pepsi, however note that brand names are banned by California   social content review guidelines (AIR)
Songstress: banned as sexist, replace   with singer
Sophisticated: banned when it refers to   religious practices or beliefs (SF-AW)
Soul food: banned as regional or ethnic   bias (ETS1)
Spastic: banned as offensive description;   muscles are spastic, not people (ETS2)
Special: banned as patronizing when   referring to a person with a disability (SF-AW, AIR, ETS2)
Spinster: banned as demeaning to older   single women (SF-AW, NCTE)
Spinsterish: banned as sexist (HRW3)
Spokesman, spokeswoman: banned as sexist,   replace with spokesperson (MMH, HAR1, NYS2)
Sportsman, sportswoman: banned as sexist,   replace with athlete, outdoor enthusiast (HRW, HYS2)
Sportsmanship: banned as sexist, replace   with sporting conduct (NES)
Squaw: banned as disparaging to Native   American women (MMH, SF-AW, HM1, HM2, HRW4)
Statesman, stateswoman: banned as sexist,   replace with diplomat, legislator, leader, public servant (HRW1, HAR1, HAR2,   NES, NYS2)
Stewardess, steward: banned as sexist,   replace with flight attendant (HM1, HAR1, NES, NCTE, NYS2)
Stickball: banned as regional or ethnic   bias (ETS1)
Stone deaf: banned as handicapism (NYC)
Strange: banned when it refers to   religious practices or beliefs (SF-AW)
Straw man: banned as sexist, replace with   unreal issue, misrepresentation (NES)
Subgroup: banned as offensive reference   to cultural differences (ACT)
Substandard English: banned as   ethnocentric, replace with slang or home language (SF-AW)
Sufferer of cerebral palsy: banned as   offensive, replace with person who has lost muscle control (HAR1)
Suffragette: banned as sexist, replace   with suffragist (MMH, SF-AW, HAR1, HAR2, NES, ETS2, NYS2)
Swarms: banned as reference to immigrant   groups (CT)
Swarthy: banned as racist, replace with   dark, black, brown (SF-AW)
Sweet young thing: banned as sexist,   replace with young woman (ETS2)
Teenager: banned, replace with adolescent
Third World: banned as ethnocentric (NES,   NYS2)
Token: use with caution, as it is often   used to dismiss or discount individuals or issues of fairness and equity   (NYS2)
Tomboy: banned as sexist (SF-AW, NES,   AIR)
Tote: banned as regional bias, replace   with brown paper bag (RIV)
Townsman, townswoman: banned, replace   with citizen, townspeople (NYS2)
Tribal warfare: banned as ethnocentric,   replace with conflict among diverse peoples (HRW4)
Tribe: banned as ethnocentric, replace   with ethnic group or nation or people (SF-AW, NYC, HRW4); however, HAR2 says   that tribe is acceptable
Tribesman: banned as ethnocentric and   sexist (HM1, HRW4)
Turning a deaf ear: banned as handicapism   (NYC)
Typical: use with caution, its appearance   is generally a warning that labeling and stereotyping will follow (NYS2)
Un-American: banned, no replacement   (NYS2)
Uncivilized: banned, no replacement   (NYS2)
Underclassman: banned, replace with   undergraduate (NYS2)
Underdeveloped: banned as ethnocentric   when referring to another country (HM1, SF-AW)
Underprivileged: banned, no replacement   (NYS2)
Unfortunate: banned as negative judgment   on person with disability (ETS2)
Unmanned: banned, replace with unstaffed,   without workers (NYS2)
Unmarried: banned, replace with single if   reference to marital status must be made (NYS2)
Usherette: banned as sexist, replace with   usher (HM1, HRW3, ETS2)
Victim: banned as demeaning reference to   person with a disability (ETS2, RIV)
Victim of blindness: banned as offensive,   replace with persons who have lost their sight (HAR1)
Waitress: banned as sexist, replace with   server, waitron (MMH, HAR1, NES)
Wandering the land: banned as reference   to Native Americans (CT)
Warlike: banned when referring to   American Indians (SF-AW)
Warrior: banned as offensive when   referring to a Native American person (HRW1)
Weak sister: banned as sexist (HRW3)
Weaker sex: banned, replace with women,   females (HM1, NES, ETS2)
Weatherman, weathergirl: banned as   sexist, replace with weather reporter, meteorologist (NES, NYS2)
West, Western: banned as Eurocentric when   discussing world geography, replace with reference to specific continent or   region (HAR2)
Wheelchair bound: banned as offensive,   replace with a person who is mobility impaired or wheelchair user (SF-AW,   HAR1, ETS2, RIV, HRW4)
Wheelchair user: banned, replace with an   individual who uses a wheelchair (NYS2)
White/whites: banned as a noun (HAR2,   SF-AW)
White: banned as an adjective meaning   pure (CT)
Whole: banned as offensive when referring   to a person’s capability, replace with person without disabilities or person   who is nondisabled (SF-AW)
Widow, widower: banned, replace with   widowed if reference to an individual’s marital status must be made (NYS2)
Wife, the: banned as synonym for wife   (HM1, HRW3)
Wild: banned when referring to American   Indians (SF-AW)
Woman doctor: banned as sexist, replace   with doctor (SF-AW, HM1, ETS2)
Woman driver: banned as sexist (HRW3)
Womanish: banned as sexist (HRW3, ETS2)
Woman’s intuition: banned, replace with   intuition, hunch (NYS2)
Woman’s work: banned as sexist (HRW3)
Women’s libber: banned as offensive,   replace with feminist or suporter of the women’s movement (HM1)
Workingman: banned as sexist, replace   with worker (MMH)
Workman: banned as sexist, replace with   worker, laborer, employee, staff member (HM1, HAR1, HRW3, NES, NYS2)
Workmanlike: banned as sexist, replace   with competent (HM1, HRW3)
Workman’s compensation: banned, replace   with workers’ compensation (NYS2)
Workmanship: banned as sexist, no   replacement (NES, NYS2)
Yacht: banned as elitist (ETS2)
Yes-man: banned as sexist (AIR, NYS2)
General Usage Rules:
Avoid man, mankind, men. (MMH, SF-AW,   HM1, ETS2)
Avoid references to the rise of man,   refer instead to the rise of civilization or humanity (MMH)
Avoid references to great men in history,   refer instead to people who made history. (MMH)
Avoid book titles like Man and His World,   Men of Science, Man and the State, Men and Nations. (HRW3)
Do not say you and your wife, refer   instead to you and your spouse. (ETS2)
Do not say when you shave in the morning,   replace with when you brush your teeth in the morning. (ETS2)
Replace the masculine pronouns he and his   with plural words they and their or by a nongendered word. For example, Each   citizen must pay his taxes should be All citizens must pay their taxes. Or,   Each citizen should pay the tax. (MMH, NES, ETS2)
Do not treat women as baggage, as passive   actors who were brought along by their husbands, as in Pioneers moved west,   taking along their wives and children. Replace with Pioneer families moved   west.
Do not use the feminine pronoun to refer   to countries and boats; use it instead. Do not say, England ruled the seas;   her navy was huge, but its navy was huge. (MMH)
Balance names like Mary, John, and Jane   with names such as Jose, Lashunda, Che, Ling. (MA)
Do not compare humans with animals   (especially with reference to Native Americans), e.g. swift as a deer or eyes   like a doe. (NYC)
Use it to refer to animals, not his or   her. Do not say, The cat washed herself, but The cat washed itself. Do not   say, The horse shook his mane,, but The horse shook its mane. (MMH, SF-AW,   HM1)
An exclusive focus on Judeo-Christian   contributions to literature or art is ethnocentric. (ETS1, ETS2)
Treat all religions with equal respect.   (ETS2)
Do not imply or claim that the land   called the United States was discovered by Europeans or that it was empty   land. (SF-AW)
Do not refer to a U.S. cavalry victory as   a battle and an American Indian victory as a massacre. (SF-AW)
Do not cast adverse reflection on any   gender, race, ethnicity, religion, or cultural group. (CA)
Do not give a demeaning or negative   portrayal of any group. (CT)
Banned Expressions:
Girls are sugar and spice and everything   nice. (MMH)
Girls can’t… (MMH)
Women can’t… (MMH)
Women shouldn’t… (SF-AW, MMH)
She acts like a lady. (SF-AW)
She (or he) runs like a girl. (SF-AW)
She thinks like a man. (SF-AW)
He acted like a woman. (MMH)
He took it like a man. (MMH, SF-AW)
He was as weak as a girl. (MMH)
I’ll have my girl check that. (NES, ETS2)
She acted like a man. (MMH)
That was a manly act of courage. (MMH)
Smart as a man. (MMH, SF-AW)
Strong as a man. (MMH, SF-AW)
Banned Gender Images:
Mothers and other females always wearing   aprons (MMH)
Mother cooking or sewing while Father   reads (MMH)
Mother bringing sandwiches to Father as   he fixes the roof (MMH)
Mother running a vacuum cleaner, cooking,   doing laundry, carrying food (MMH)
Moher seeing Father off to work (MMH)
Women finding achievement solely in   marriage or motherhood (ETS1)
Women portrayed as teacher, mother,   nurse, and/or secretary (CT)
Women portrayed as cute, fragile,   delicate, helpless, doll-like (HRW3)
Women consistently portrayed as wives and   mothers (AIR, RIV)
Women in jobs with less power than men   (AIR)
Women dependent on men (AIR, NYC, RIV)
Women as catty, competitive with each   other for male attention, preferring the company of men (NYC)
Women of achievement who are domineering,   aggressive, lacking in desirable personal attributes (NYC)
Women aging less gracefully than men   (AIR)
Women having consistently inferior math   and science skills than men (AIR)
Women in stereotypical female jobs   (teacher, nurse, secretary) (AIR)
Women as less rational and more intuitive   as men (AIR, ETS1, ETS2)
Women needing less education than men   (AIR)
Women as nurses, receptionists (RIV)
Women as more nurturing than men (AIR)
Women engaging in domestic chores more   than men (AIR)
Mother shopping (MMH)
Mother showing shock, fear, horror (MMH)
Mother at vanity table (MMH)
Men as sole breadwinners for the family   (AIR, RIV)
Men earning more money than women (AIR)
Men as active problem-solvers (AIR)
Men in positions of greater authority   than women (AIR)
Men as capable leaders (RIV)
Men more rational than women (AIR)
Men more aggressive than women (AIR)
Men playing sports, working with tools   (AIR, RIV)
Men as lawyers, plumbers (RIV)
Men and boys larger and heavier than   women and girls (HRW3, NYC)
Men in stereotypical jobs like   construction, police work, physician (AIR)
Men less able to complete domestic chores   than women (AIR)
Father always driving the family car on   outings (MMH)
Father taking children on adventurous   outings (MMH)
Mother comforting children, giving   sympathy, hugs, kisses, hot milk at bedtime (MMH)
Father expressionless or relaxed in   trying circumstances (MMH)
Females backing off from center of action   (e.g. a girl recoiling from a snake) (MMH)
Boys playing ball, while girls watch   (MMH)
Boys playing sports (AIR)
Females wringing or fluttering their   hands, covering their faces or mouths, making shrinking-back motions,   lowering their heads, casting down their eyes (MMH)
Females using coy, flirtatious gestures,   tilted heads, little shrugs, playing with hair, fingering dress (MMH)
Females usually sitting (MMH)
Girls playing in dresses or always   wearing them to school (MMH)
Girls playing house (HRW3)
Girls deferring to boys (HRW3)
Girls always looking cute, wearing   frills, ribbons, jewelry (MMH)
Women, girls who are weepy, fearful and   emotional (AIR, MA, NYC, RIV)
Women, girls as weak, frail, passive,   docile, incompetent (MA, NYC)
Females more preoccupied with their   appearance than males (MMH, AIR, MA, RIV, ETS1, ETS2)
Girls playing dress-up, buying clothes   (MMH)
Women more concerned about home and   family than about career (MA, NYC, ETS2)
Women, girls who love to gossip and talk   all the time (MA)
Women, girls who lack leadership   qualities such as self-confidence, ambition, assertiveness (MA)
Women shopping and spending money (MA)
Women who are not team players (MA)
Women, girls who lack mechanical   abilities and basic mathematics abilities (SF-AW, MA)
Pink for girl babies, blue for boy babies   (MMH)
Mothers always in dresses (MMH)
Girls playing with dolls, baby carriages,   kitchen equipment (MMH, AIR)
Girls indoors or hovering near doorways,   sheltered from the elements, carrying umbrellas while boys are out in the   rain (MMH)
Pioneer women always cooking, sweeping,   spinning wool, rocking babies (MMH)
Pioneer woman riding in covered wagon   while man walks (MMH)
Lady of the manor doing needlepoint (MMH)
Women selling cakes at a fair (MMH)
Women as passengers on a sailboat or   sipping hot chocolate in a ski lodge (MMH)
Women defined by the accomplishments of   others, such as husband or children (AIR)
Women as nurses, elementary-school   teachers, clerks, secretaries, tellers, hairdressers, librarians (MMH, HRW3)
Women or girls as fearful, squeamish,   passive, dependent, weepy, mechanically inept, frivolus, shrewish, nagging,   easily defeated by simple problems (“just like a girl” or   “just like a woman”) (HRW3)
Females as passive recipients, observers   of actions, or victims in need of rescue by others (MA, NYC)
Men or boys who are brutish, violent,   crude, harsh, insensitive (HRW3)
Men or boys in active, problem-solving   roles (MMH, SF-AW)
Girls as frightened, weak (SF-AW, NYC)
Girls as gentle, silly, illogical (SF-AW,   ETS2)
Girls as shrewish, nagging (SF-AW)
Girls as indecisive, uncertain, confused   (SF-AW)
Girls suppressing anger (SF-AW)
Girls as conformist, dependent, passive,   cooperative (SF-AW, HRW, NYC)
Girls as peaceful, emotional, warm   (SF-AW)
Girls as poor as math, science (SF-AW)
Girls as neat (SF-AW, HRW3, MMH)
Girls as shorter, smaller than boys   (SF-AW)
Men and boys as strong, brave, silent   (AIR, RIV)
Boys as strong, tough, competitive   (SF-AW)
Boys as curious, ingenious, able to   overcome obstacles (NYC)
Boys as intelligent, logical, mechanical   (SF-AW, NYC)
Boys as quiet, easygoing (SF-AW)
Boys as active, brave, decisive   problem-solvers (SF-AW, NYC)
Boys as messy, unconcerned with   appearance (SF-AW, NYC)
Boys as independent, autonomous, loners   (SF-AW, NYC)
Boys as adventurous leaders, innovators   (SF-AW, NYC)
Boys expressing anger (SF-AW, AIR)
Boys as unemotional, cold (SF-AW, NYC)
Boys as athletic, outdoor-oriented (NYC)
Boys as good at math, science (SF-AW)
Boys as confident, concerned with   achievement, career-oriented (SF-AW, NYC)
Boys as violent (SF-AW)
Banned General Racial Images:
People of color as universally athletic   (AIR)
Minority children or adults as passive   recipients, observers of action, or victims in need of rescue by others (MA)
People of color who become successful by   accepting discrimination and working hard (NYC)
People of color who abandon their own   culture and language to achieve success (NYC)
People of color as exotic, childlike,   folkloric (NYC)
People of color as gangsters and   criminals (NYC)
People of color living in poor urban   areas (AIR, ETS1)
People of color being angry (AIR)
People of color as politically liberal   (AIR)
People of color belonging to any one   religion (AIR)
People of color valued as tokens or   valued by whites as professional peers (AIR)
People of color sharing a common culture   or preferences (AIR)
People of color sharing common dress   (AIR)
People of color sharing common   personality traits (AIR)
People of color sharing a common   heritage, including language, dance, music, food preferences (AIR)
Banned Black Images:
African Americans as great athletes,   physically powerful (HRW1, AIR, MA, RIV, ETS1, ETS2)
African Americans sharing common tastes   in food (AIR)
African Americans as musical, great sense   of rhythm, terrific entertainers (MA)
African American women as graceful (MA)
African Americans speaking   “black” language (MA)
African Americans being lazy and   shiftless, don’t want to work (MA)
African American men who desert their   families (MA)
African American children having children   and becoming welfare mothers (MA)
African Americans as less intelligent   than other groups (MA)
African Americans who have white features   or all look alike (MMH)
African Americans who all have the same   skin color (MMH, HRW1)
African Americans with the same   hairstyles and hair textures(MMH, HRW1)
African Americans with exaggerated facial   features (MMH)
African Americans always wearing loud   colors, straw hats, white suits, or conversely, standard, middle-class   clothes (MMH)
African Americans driving big cars and   wearing flashy clothes (MA)
People in Africa wearing native dress or   wearing Westernized version of African costumes (MMH, HRW1)
African Americans in crowded tenements on   chaotic streets, big bright cars, abandoned buildings with broken windows and   wash hanging out, or living in innocuous, dull, white-picket-fence   neighborhoods (MMH)
African Americans in low-paying jobs,   unemployed, or on welfare (HRW1, AIR)
African Americans in urban ghettos (HRW1,   AIR, MA, ETS1, ETS2)
African Americans who are unaware of   their African heritage (ETS2)
African Americans who are uneducated   (high school dropouts (HRW1)
African Americans as maids (RIV)
African American woman as powerful   “black matriarch” (NYC)
African Americans living in urban   environments (RIV)
African Americans who are baggage   handlers (HRW1)
African Americans who are cleaning   women/men (HRW1, NYC)
African Americans in photos in the   background or as the only minority in the photo (MMH, SF-AW, HRW1)
African Americans playing only with toys   from the mainstream or only with toys from their own culture (HRW1)
African cultures portrayed as primitive   or uncivilized (ETS1)
Banned Native American Images:
Native Americans who speak broken English   (MMH, HM2)
Native Americans performing a rain dance   (MMH)
Children “playing Indian” (HM2)
Native American males acting like fierce   savages (MMH)
Native Americans in low-paying jobs,   drunk, unemployed, or on welfare (HRW1, AIR)
Native Americans living in shacks on   reservations, with outdoor water tanks and bleak landscapes (MMH, HRW1, ETS1)
Native Americans who are uneducated   (HRW1, ETS1, ETS2)
Native Americans who are not part of the   American mainstream (HRW1)
Native Americans living in rural settings   on reservations (HRW1, ETS1, ETS2)
Native Americans with “how”   gestures, warlike stances, look-alikes, caricatures (MMH, HRW1)
Native Americans depicted in teepees,   with totem poles, pinto horses with buffalo thundering by (MMH, HRW1)
Native Americans with sameness of facial   features, impassive expressions (MMH)
Native Americans with long hair, braids,   headbands (MMH, HRW1)
Native Americans wearing full   headdresses, feathers, beads, buffalo robes, war paint, holding bow and   arrows (MMH, HRW1)
Native Americans with red skin (MMH,   HRW1)
Native Americans hunting or in war   parties or passing the peace pipe (MMH, HRW1)
Modern Native Americans working on   ranches, in menial jobs, or doing construction work (MMH, HRW1)
Native Americans who are dependent on   Caucasians (HM2)
Native Americans playing only with toys   from the mainstream culture or only with toys from their own culture (HRW1)
Native American females sewing buffalo   hides, grinding corn, carrying papooses (MMH, HRW1)
American Indians portrayed as people who   live in harmony with nature (AIR)
American Indians portrayed as   “closer to nature” than other Americans (ETS1, ETS2)
American Indians as alcoholics, warriors,   or thieves (AIR)
American Indians who are craftspeople   (HRW1)
American Indians as primitive or warlike   (AIR)
Banned Asian Images:
Asians as very intelligent, excellent   scholars (MA)
Asian Americans with look-alike features   for all ages: short, skinny, slanted eyes, wear glasses (MMH, MA)
Asian Americans as a “model   minority”, repressed, studious, goody-goody (SF-AW, RIV, HM2, MMH, MA)
Asian Americans as ambitious,   hard-working, and competitive (MA)
Asian Americans as having strong family   ties (MA)
Asian Americans as quiet, polite,   concerned with proper form (MA)
Asian Americans as inscrutable,   mysterious, concerned with saving face (MMH, MA)
Asian Americans as frugal, passive,   rigid, submissive, unathletic (SF-AW)
Asian Americans as musical prodigies or   class valedictorian (HM2)
Asian Americans unable to speak English   or uninvolved in mainstream America (HRW1)
Asian Americans working as laundry   workers, engineers, waiters, gardeners, health workers (HRW1)
Asian Americans living in ethnic   neighborhoods (AIR, ETS2)
Asian Americans as predominantly refugees   (AIR, ETS2)
Asian Americans working in a laundry   (AIR, RIV)
Asian American males as peasants,   coolies, waiters, laundry owners, math students (MMH, HRW1)
Asian Americans working at vegetable   stands (HRW1)
Asian American females as doll-like,   geisha-girl image, ingratiating to males (MMH, HRW1)
Asian Americans playing only with toys   from the mainstream culture or only with toys from their own culture (HRW1)
Chinese people living and working only in   Chinatown or in China working in rice fields (MMH, HRW1)
Asian Americans shown with eyes as   single, slanted lines; look alikes; straight black hair with bangs; buck   teeth (MMH, HRW1)
Modern Chinese males wearing pigtails and   classes (HRW1)
Modern Chinese women wearing   high-collared cheong dresses (HRW1)
Modern Chinese males with inscrutable   grins, with folded or clasped hands or always wearing glasses and looking   serious and polite (MMH, HRW1)
Chinese people who have great food (MA)
Chinese people who own or run laundries   and restaurants (MA, NYC)
Chinese people who love to gamble (MA)
Chinese people who are cruel (MA)
Modern Asian Americans wearing dark   business suits and glasses (MMH)
Hordes of Japanese with suits and cameras   (MMH)
Modern Japanese women wearing kimonos or   carrying babies on their backs (HRW1, MMH)
Japanese people who are law-abiding (MA)
Japanese people who are great imitators   (MA)
Japanese people who are sneaky (MA)
Japanese women who are servile and   obedient (MA)
Korean Americans owning or working in   fruit markets (NYC)
Banned Hispanic Images:
Latinos who are lazy or passive (HM2, MA)
Latinos who are migrant workers (HM2)
Latinos who have broken English (HM2,   ETS1, ETS2)
Latinos who wear serapes and sombreros   (HM2)
Latinos who are dependent on Caucasians   (HM2)
Hispanics with same facial features, skin   color, size, hairstyles, men with mustaches (MMH, HRW1)
Hispanic men who are excessively   demonstrative and swaggering, women and girls who are shy and docile (MMH,   HRW1)
Hispanics who are warm, expressive, and   emotional (MA)
Hispanics who most often work in service   or agricultural jobs (MA)
Hispanics who refuse to learn English   (MA)
Hispanics who don’t value education (MA)
Hispanic men who are macho, dominate   women (MA)
Hispanics who are lazy and shiftless (MA)
Hispanics who are not punctual and   frequently procrastinate (MA)
Hispanics who don’t care if they are on   welfare (MA)
Hispanics who are violent, hot-tempered,   and bloodthirsty (MA)
Hispanics in low-paying jobs, unemployed,   or on welfare (HRW1, AIR)
Hispanics in urban settings (ghettos or   barrios) (HRW1, AIR, ETS1, ETS2)
Hispanics unable to speak English or   uninvolved in mainstream America (HRW1)
Hispanics as clothing workers (HRW1)
Hispanics as farm laborers (HRW1)
Hispanics as cleaning women/men (HRW1)
Hispanics wearing bright colors, older   women in black, girls always in dresses (MMH)
Mexican men always wearing ponchos and   wide-brimmed hats (MMH, HRW1)
Mexicans always living in huts or men   sleeping under huge hats (MMH, HRW1)
Hispanics living in shacks or crowded   tenements (MMH, HRW1)
Mexicans grinding corn (MMH, HRW1)
Hispanic young people always working on   secondhand cars (MMH)
Mexicans riding donkeys (MMH, HRW1)
Mexicans employed in menial jobs, such as   crop picking, delivering goods, waiting on tables (MMH, HRW1)
Hispanics playing only with toys from the   mainstream culture or only with toys from their own culture (HRW1)
Banned Jewish Images:
Jews as diamond cutters, jewelers,   doctors, dentists, lawyers, classical musicians, tailors, shopkeepers (HRW1)
Jews with hooked noses; dark, kinky hair;   hunched-over postures; heavy makeup and fancy hairstyles (HRW1)
Jewish-princess image (HRW1)
Jews always wearing business suits,   glasses, and carrying briefcases (HRW1)
Jews either in urban tenements or in   wealthy neighborhoods, with nothing in between (HRW1)
Jews playing only with toys from the   mainstream culture or only with toys from their own culture (HRW1)
Banned Old Person Images:
Older people as meddlesome, demanding,   childish, unattractive, inactve, victims of ridicule and violence (MMH, NYC)
Older people in nursing homes or with   canes, walkers, wheelchairs, orthopedic shoes, or eyeglasses (HRW1)
Older people as helpless and dependent on   others to take care of them (AIR, NYC, ETS2, RIV)
Older people as ill, physically weak,   feeble, or dependent (AIR, NYC, ETS1)
Older people as funny, absent-minded,   fussy, or charming (NES)
Older people who have twinkles in their   eyes, need afternoon naps, lose their hearing or sight, suffer aches or pains   (NES)
Older people who are refired, are at the   end of their careers, have lived the most fruitful years of their lives, or   are engaged in a life of leisure activities (NES, NYC)
Older persons who are either sweet and   gentle or irritable and pompous (HM1)
Older people with gray hair and in   juvenile or faddish clothing or in worn, outdated clothing (HRW1)
Older people in rocking chairs, knitting,   napping, or watching television (HRW1)
Older people who are isolated, inactive,   or lonely (HRW1)
Older people who are poor or living on   welfare (HRW1)
Older people as nonproductive members of   society (HRW1, AIR, ETS2)
Older people as senile, forgetful, or   eccentric (HRW1, ETS2)
Older people who are irritable, senile,   withdrawn from the world (ETS2)
Older people who are sickly, fragile,   sedentary (ETS2)
Older people living with their offspring   or with other relatives (HRW1)
Older people with peers, people of the   same sex, or only with children (HRW1)
Older people who are fishing, baking,   knitting, whittling, reminiscing, rocking in chairs (SF-AW, NES, AIR, RIV)
Older persons who are bent, bespectacled,   dentured, dowdy, feeble, frail, gnarled, hard-of-hearing (SF-AW)
Older persons who are hobbling,   shuffling, stooped, trembling, white-haired, wheezing, wrinkled (SF-AW)
Older persons who are cute, dear, docile,   little, mild-mannered, spry, sweet, well-meaning (SF-AW)
Older persons who are bitter,   cantankerous, crabby, cranky, difficult (SF-AW)
Older persons who are grumpy, meek,   nagging, rigid, selfish, silly, stubborn (SF-AW)
Older persons who are bored, dependent,   inactive, sick, unhappy, weak, weary (SF-AW)
Older persons who need government   assistance because of financial problems (ETS2)
Older persons who need or want to be   pitied or patonized (ETS2)
Older persons who suffer from physical   deterioration (AIR)
Banned Disabled Images:
Disabled people as helpless, passive,   dependent, naive, childlike (HM1, AIR)
Disabled people as segregated from   mainstream society (AIR)
Disabled people interacting only with   other disabled people (AIR)
Disabled people as victims (HM1, AIR,   ETS2)
Disabled people as objects of pity or   curiosity (HM1)
Disabled people as sinister characters;   for example, pirates, witches, criminals (HM1, MMH)
Nearsighted people bumping into things   (HM1)
People with disabilities as saintly like   Tiny Tim (NYC)
People with disabilities as victims of   violence (NYC)
People with disabilities as laughable,   the brunt of jokes (NYC)
People with disabilities as their own   worst enemy (NYC)
People with disabilities as sinister or   evil, like Dr. Strangelove, “whose physical disability symbolizes moral   depravity” (NYC)
People with disabilities endowed with   magic powers, “e.g the crippled newsboy who says the magic word and   becomes Captain Marvel Jr. or the little Lame Prince who finds a magic   carpet” (NYC)
People with disabilities should be   presented with an emphasis on their positive accomplishments, not their   disabilities. (MA)
People with disabilities being   unproductive (AIR, ETS1, ETS2)
People with disabilities sharing common   needs or problems (AIR)
People with disabilities as a burden to   others (AIR)
People with disabilities portrayed only   as white and middle class (AIR)
People with disabilities as heroic,   inspirational, or courageous because of their disability (AIR, SF-AW, ETS1,   ETS2)
People with disabilities   “overcoming” the disability or achieving “in spite of” it   (SF-AW, ETS2)
People with disabilities portrayed as   invalids, patients, bitter, sickly, or victims (SF-AW, ETS1)
Banned Gay Images:
Gays and lesbians as universally artistic   (AIR)
Gays and lesbians as outcasts (AIR)
Gays and lesbians as living only in urban   areas (AIR)
Gays and lesbians as having emotional   problems (AIR)
Gays and lesbians as pedophiles (AIR)
Banned Miscellaneous Images:
Dumb athletes (MMH)
Stupid, beautiful women (MMH)
Skinny intellectuals wearing glasses   (MMH)
Fat social misfits (MMH)
Old ladies with twenty cats (MMH)
Narrow-minded, prejudiced working-class   people (MMH)
Exemplary upper-class people of bygone   days (MMH)
Working-class people who are poor, lazy,   intellectually inferior, and prone to violence (MMH)
Working-class people who make ethnic or   racial jokes or slurs (NYC)
Working-class people who speak English   ungrammatically and use vulgar language (NYC)
Irish policemen (AIR, RIV)
Children living in affluent suburbs (AIR,   RIV)
Children as healthy bundles of energy   (AIR)
Banned Textbook Topics:
Anthropomorphism in nonfiction (HM2)
Behavior that will lead to dangerous   situations, e.g. children should not go with strangers (HRW2)
Bodily functions (HRW2)
Brand names, corporate logos, or   trademarks (HRW1, CA)
Conflict with authority (parents,   teachers, law) (HRW2)
Controversial people, such as Malcolm X   (HM2)
Creation myths that present alternatives   to biblical creation (HRW2)
Crime (HRW2)
Dialect (especially black dialect (HRW2,   HM2)
Divorce (HRW2)
Drinking (HRW2, CA)
Drugs (HRW2, CA)
Ethnic groups in desperate situations   (AEP)
Euthanasia (HRW2)
Evolution presented as fact rather than   scientific theory (HRW2)
Fighting (HRW2)
Fire hazards (CA)
Guns, shooting (HRW2)
Illegitimacy (HRW2)
Irreverent references to the Deity (HRW2)
Liquor (HRW2, CA)
Lying, or duplicity of any kind (HRW2)
Name-calling (HRW2)
Nudity (HRW2)
Obscene or profane language (HRW2)
Physical violence (HRW2)
Poor nutrition, poor eating habits, junk   food (HRW2, CA)
Questions that ask students to describe   their feelings. Say instead, “How do you think a person would feel   if…?” (HRW2)
References to Christmas, Easter, Hanukah   (HRW2)
References to humanism that might be   interprted as giving it the status of a religion (HRW2)
Religion (HRW2)
Selections that imply that   “white” behavior standards are needed for success (HAR1)
Sex or sexuality (HRW2)
Situation ethics in which the right or   wrong of a given act is based on the situation in which it occurs rather than   on an absolute standard of behavior (HRW2)
Smoking (HRW2, CA)
Stealing (HRW2)
Stories about slavery, slaves (HM2)
Suicide (HRW2)
Unflattering comparisons between the   sexes (HM1)
Unpunished transgression (HRW2)
Winter holidays (AEP)
Banned Food References (HRW2):
Alcoholic drinks
Bacon, salt pork
Butter, margarine, lard
Cakes
Candy
Coffee
Condiments
Corn chips
Cream
Cream cheese
Doughnuts
French fries
Fruit punches
Gravies
Gum
Honey
Jam, jelly, preserves
Juice drinks
Ketchup
Pickles
Pies
Potato chips
Pretzels
Salad dressings, mayonnaise
Salad oil, shortening
Salt
Snack chips
Soda pop
Sour cream
Sugar (all kinds)
Sweet rolls
Tea
Water (Italian) ices
Whipped cream
Acceptable Food References (HRW2):
Meat (preferably unfried)
Fish
Poultry (unfried)
Shellfish
Eggs
Cooked beans, peas
Nuts
Nut butters
Seeds
Milk
Cheese
Yogurt
Cottage cheese
Fruits
Vegetables
Fruit and vegetable juices (100 percent
Enriched and whole-grain breads, rolls,   muffins, biscuits
Enriched and whole-grain cereals
Enriched and whole-grain pastas
Enriched and whole-grain rice
Bulgur
Cornmeal
Enriched and whole-grain crackers
Hamburgers
Hot dogs
Pizza
Burritos
Fish sandwiches
Tacos
Banned Test Topics:
Abortion (AIR, MA, NYS, ETS1, RIV, MI)
Addiction (AIR, RIV)
AIDS (AIR)
Alcoholism (RIV)
Alternative lifestyles (MI)
Animal abuse (AIR, RIV)
Animal rights (AIR)
Aspirin or any other drugs (AIR, MI)
Assisted suicide (MI) Being fired or   losing a job (MI, RIV)
Bible (MI)
Birth control, condoms (NEB, MA, MI)
Birthday celebrations (AIR, RIV)
Blizzards (AIR)
Brand-name products or corporate logos   (AIR, CA)
Cancer (or other serious illnesses) (AIR,   RIV, HSV)
Catastrophes such as fires or   earthquakes; a tornado or hurricane may be acceptable if it is not too   frightening (AIR, RIV)
Child abuse (AIR, MA, RIV)
Child neglect (NEB, MA)
Children mistreating each other (AIR,   RIV)
Christmas (or other religious holiday   celebrations) (AIR)
Coming-out parties (AIR)
Cotillions (AIR)
Creatures from space (HSV)
Creatures that are scary or dirty (e.g.   rats, mice, roaches, snakes, lice) (AIR, RIV)
Criticism of democracy or capitalism   (HSV)
Dancing (HSV)
Dangerous situations (children home   alone, swimming alone, extreme sports) (HSV)
Death (AIR, NYS, RIV, HSV)
Dinosaurs (implies evolution) (AIR, MI,   HSV)
Disease (AIR, RIV, HSV)
Disobedient children (AIR, RIV, MI)
Disrespect for authority (AIR, RIV, MI,   HSV)
Disrespectful or criminal behavior (AIR,   RIV)
Divorce (AIR, MA, RIV)
Drugs and alcohol (AIR, MI, HSV)
Euthanasia (AIR, ETS1, MI)
Evolution, the origins of the universe   (AIR, RIV, HSV)
Expensive gifts (HSV)
Extraterrestrials (AIR, RIV)
Family issues (feelings about parents,   siblings) (NEB, MA)
Farms (specialized terms like gilt)   (ETS1)
Fighting terrorism (may reinforce   prejudice) (MI)
Fossils (implies evolution) (AIR, RIV)
Gambling (AIR, RIV, MI, HSV)
Gangs (AIR)
Genetic engineering (MI)
Ghosts (AIR, RIV)
Giving birth, whether people or animals   (AIR, RIV, MI)
Gratuitous gore, such as animals eating   other animals (AIR, RIV)
Guns, gun control (AIR, RIV)
Halloween (AIR, RIV, MI, HSV)
High-priced consumer goods, such as a   brand new ten-speed bicycle or a family vacation (AIR, MA, RIV)
Home computers (HSV)
Home swimming pools (HSV)
Homelessness (may or may not be suitable)   (MA)
Homosexuality (MI)
Hunting (HSV)
Hurricanes (AIR)
Incest (NEB, AIR)
Injury (AIR)
Junk bonds (AIR)
Junk foods (AIR, CA, MI, HSV)
Knives (RIV)
Law (specialized terms such as tort)   (ETS1)
Life on other planets, aliens and flying   saucers (if the implication of evolution can be made (MI)
Magic (AIR, RIV, HSV)
Masks (tainted by association with   Halloween) (AIR, RIV)
Military topics (terms such as smart   bomb, stealth bomber, rapier, muzzle) (AIR, ETC1)
Movies (HSV)
Murder (AIR, MA (may or may not be   suitable))
National defense (MI)
National tragedies (such as World Trade   Center) (MI, RIV)
Native American religious references   (animal gods, plants with a spirit, etc.) (AIR, RIV)
New Age religion (AIR)
Nonstandard English (slang, dialect,   trendy expressions) (AIR)
Nuclear issues: nuclear power, nuclear   weapons (MI, HSV)
Nudity, implied nudity (AIR, RIV, MI)
Occult (MA)
Oppression (AIR)
Paganism (AIR, RIV, MI)
Parapsychology (AIR, RIV, MI)
Parents quarreling (AIR, RIV)
Personal appearance (e.g. height and   weight) (AIR, RIV)
Personal information about self or family   (RIV)
Politics (AIR, RIV, MI, HSV)
Politics (specialized terms like   alderman) (ETS1)
Pornography (AIR)
Poverty (AIR)
Pregnancy (RIV, MA (may or may not be   suitable), MI)
Profanity (MA)
Pumpkins (tainted by association with   Halloween) (AIR)
Questioning parental authority (MA)
Race relations (AIR)
Racial prejudice (AIR, RIV, MI)
Rap music (AIR, RIV)
Rape (NEB, MA)
Rats, mice, roaches, snakes, lice (RIV)
Regional disasters (e.g. hurricanes in   Florida, flooding in Texas) (RIV)
Religion (AIR, RIV, MI, HSV)
Religion/science conflicts (MI)
Religious holidays (AIR, RIV, MI, HSV)
Rock and roll music (AIR, RIV)
Satanism (AIR, RIV, MI)
Science (specialized terms like enzyme)   (ETS1)
Scientific creationism (MI)
Secular humanism (AIR, MI)
Serious car accidents (AIR)
Sexuality (AIR, NEB, MA, MI, HSV)
Sexual preference or orientation (MA)
Sexually transmitted diseases (NEB, MA)
Situation ethics (AIR, MI)
Slavery (except in historical context)   (AIR, HSV)
Smoking (AIR)
Social register (AIR)
Someone getting fired or losing their job   (AIR, RIV)
Sorcery (MI)
Sports (except for incidental references   to a ball, game, score, or match) (AIR, ETS1)
Suicide (AIR, MA)
Supernatural (AIR, RIV)
Technology (specialized terms like   spreadsheet) (ETS1)
Teen pregnancy (AIR)
Thanksgiving (because it is a religious   holiday) (AIR, RIV)
Tobacco (MI, HSV)
Tools and machinery (specialized terms   like flange) (ETS1)
Transportation (specialized terms like   flatcar) (ETS1)
Typhoons (AIR)
Unemployment (AIR, RIV)
Unhealthy foods (e.g. those that are   fatty, sugary, or lack nutritional value (HSV)
Unsafe situations (such as keeping   dangerous animals or doing dangerous things) (AIR, RIV)
Vacations in faraway places, ski trips,   and other expensive items beyond the reach of all (AIR, HSV)
Violence (AIR, ETS1, RIV, HSV)
War (AIR, NYS, ETS1, HSV)
Weapons (avoid mention of guns, knives,   except in historical context) (AIR, MA, RIV)
Witchcraft, witches (except in historical   context in Massachusetts) (AIR, MA, RIV, MI, HSV)
Yachting (AIR)
Banned Test Material:
Any language or content that suggest   economic, regional, cultural, or gender bias (NYS)
Any language, content, or contxt that   might be emotionally upsetting (NYS)
Any language, content, or context that is   offensive to males or females (NYS)
Any language, content, or context that   favors one racial or ethnic group over another (NYS)
Any language, content, or context that   portrays one or more racial or ethnic groups in a pejorative fashion (NYS)
Any language, content, or context that   favors one religion and demeans others (NYS)
Any language, content, or context that   portrays one or more religions or religious leaders in a pejorative manner   (NYS) Any language, content, or context that is not accessible to one or more   religions (NYS)
Any language, content, or context that   requires the parent, teacher, or student to support a position that is   contrary to their religious beliefs (NYS)
Any language, content, or context that   portrays one or more age groups in a pejorative faction (NYS)
Any language, content, or context that is   offensive to one or more age groups (NYS)
Any language, content, or context that   degrades people on the basis of their physical appearance or their physical,   cognitive, or emotional challenge (NYS)
Any language, content, or context that   focuses on a person’s disability rather than the whole person (NYS)
Any language, content, or context that   makes assumptions about what a disabled person can or cannot do (NYS)
Any language, content, or context that   requires a student to take a position that challenges parental authority   (NYS)
Any language, content, or context that   presents violence gratuitously, disproportionately, or in an overly graphic   manner (NYS)
Any language, content, or context that   presents inflammatory or highly controversial themes such as death, wars,   abortion, etc. (NYS)
Any language, content, or context that   suggests that affluence is related to merit (NYS)
Any language, content, or context that   contains sexual innuendoes (NYS)
Any language, content, or context that   fails to denounce criminal, illegal, or dangerous behavior (NYS)
Any older text or paintings that portray   women in stereotypical or demeaning ways (ETS)
Photograph Rules:
All women should wear bras. (HSV)
No noticeable bulges below the waist for   men. (HSV)
No hats or sunglasses or part of a   uniform. (HSV)
No bare feet. (HSV)
No bandannas, head scarves, tight skirts,   low cleavage, bare midriffs, shorts, sleeveless blouses, tank tops. (HSV)
Shoes must have only black, brown, or   white shoelaces. (HSV)
Don’t show soles of shoes. (HSV)
No designer tennis shoes, team jackets,   or patches. (HSV)
No religious jewelry. (HSV)
No hanging keychains. (HSV)
No big hair on women. (HSV)
No boxer shorts showing. (HSV)
No nail polish. (HSV)
No visible tattoos, scars, broken teeth,   moles, disfigurements. (HSV)
Do not point with fingers. (HSV)
Subjects should not eat with left hand.   (HSV)
No hand-holding or other displays of   affection. (HSV)
No gum-chewing. (HSV)
No churches, adult theaters/bookstores,   bars, or liquor stores in the background. (HSV)
No holiday decorations. (HSV)
Healthy meals only. (HSV)
Dogs and cats should not be on the   furniture. (HSV)
Do not portray dead animals. (AEP)
Do not show a man with his hands in his   pockets (sexual innuendo). (AEP)
Do not show someone wearing a cap   backwards (gang symbol). (AEP)
Do not show a person with sweat (sexual   innuendo). (AEP)
Do not portray scantily clad people, even   in paintings or sculptures. (AEP)
Do not show a rainbow in a photograph   (gay agenda). (AEP)
Do not portray a cows’s udder (sexual   innuendo). (AEP)
Do not portray poverty, especially in   poor regions. (AEP)
Do not show women cooking (stereotype).   (AEP)
Do not portray junk food, such as hot   dogs. (AEP)
Sources and Abbreviations:
ACT: Fairness Report for the ACT   Assessment Tests, 1999-200 (ACT, 2000)
AEP: Association of Education Publishers   online newsletter, speech by Jonathan Rosenbloom of TIME Learning Ventures,   September 3, 2002
AIR: American Institutes for Research,   AIR Principles for Bias, Sensitivity, and Language Simplification, fall 2000
APA: American Psychological Association,   Publication Manual, 4th ed. (APA, 1994), pp. 46-60
APhilA: American Philosophical   Association, Guidelines for Non-Sexist Use of Language,   www.apa.udel.edu/apa/publications/texts/nonsexist.html, 2001
CA: California Department of Education,   Standards for Evaluating Instructional Materials for Social Content: 2000   Edition (California Department of Education, 2001
CT: Connecticut Department of Education,   Fairness/Bias Review Guidelines for the Connecticut Mastery Test, 2002
ETS1: Educational Testing Service,   Overview: ETS Fairness Review (ETS, 1998)
ETS2: Educational Testing Service,   Sensitivity Review Process: Guidelines and Procedures (ETS, 1992)
HAR1: Harcourt, Striving for Fairness   (unpublished document, for internal use by publishing company, 2001
HAR2: Harcourt Horizons, Editorial   Guidelines (unpublished document, for internal use by publishing company and   reviewers of its textbooks, 2001
HM1: Houghton Mifflin: Eliminating   Stereotypes (Houghton Mifflin, 1981)
HM2: Houghton Mifflin: HMR 2001:   Guidelines for Literature Search (unpublished, for internal use by publishing   company, 2001
HRW1: Holt, Rinehart and Winston School   Department, Guidelines for the Treatment of People and Related Issues, 1981
HRW2: Holt, Rinehart and Winston School   Department, Guidelines for Literature Selection, 1984
HRW3: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston School   Department, The Treatment of Sex Roles, 1975
HRW4: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, General   Style Guidelines for Social Studies, 2003
HSV: Harcourt/Steck-Vaughn, 1998
MA: Massachusetts Department of   Education, Guidelines for Bias Review of the Massachusetts Comprehensive   Assessment System, March 3, 1998
MI: Michigan Sensitivity/Fairness Review   Guidelines for Testing, 2003
MMH: Macmillan McGraw Hill, Reflecting   Diversity (1993)
NCTE: National Council of Teachers of   English Guidelines for Gender – Fair Use of Language, 2002
NEB: Nebraska Department of Eduation, A   Guide to Aid Nebraska School Districts in Addressing the Quality Components   in the District Assessment Plans, April 2000
NES: National Evaluation Systems, Bias   Issues in Test Development, 1991
NYC: New York City Board of Education,   Promoting Bias-Free Curriculum Materials: A Resource Guide for Staff   Development, 1988
NYS: New York State, Sensitivity and Bias   Review of New York State Assessment (Albany, 2000), including “New York   State Sensitivity Review Guidelines”, 2000
RIV: Bias and Sensitivity Concerns in   Testing (Riverside Publishing, 1998)
SF-AW: Scott Foresman-Addison Wesley,   Multicultural Guidelines, 1996
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